PSYC 1000 Chapter Notes -Anorexia Nervosa, Mood Disorder, Biopsychosocial Model

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Published on 6 Aug 2012
School
University of Guelph
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 1000
Course: PSYC*1000 (DE)
Professor: Harvey Marmurek
Schedule: Summer, 2012
Textbook: Psychology – Tenth Edition in Modules authored by David G. Myers
Textbook ISBN: 9781464102615
Module 47: Introduction to Psychological Disorders
Defining Psychological Disorders
How should we draw the line between normality and disorder?
Psychological Disorders are patterns of thoughts, feelings, or actions that are deviant, distressful, and
dysfunctional. Being different (deviant) from most other people in one’s culture is part of what it takes to define a
psychological disorder. Standards for deviance also vary with time, vary by context and culture. Dysfunction is key
to defining a disorder: an intense fear of spiders may be deviant, but if it doesn’t impair your life it is not a disorder.
ADHD – Normal High Energy or Genuine Disorder?
Why is there controversy over attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder?
5% of children and 3% of teens diagnosed; 2.5% of adults exhibit ADHD symptoms, diagnosed three times
more often in boys than girls. ADHD has associations with abnormal brain-activity patterns. ADHD often coexists
with a learning disorder or with defiant and temper-prone behaviour. ADHD is heritable.
A lawyer is distressed by feeling the need to wash his hands 100 times a day he has no time left to meet with
clients, and his colleagues are wondering about his competence. His behaviour would probably be labelled
disordered, because he is (1) distressed about his behaviour and it is also (2) deviant from the behaviours of those
around him, and (3) dysfunctional-interfering with his day-to-day-life.
Understanding Psychological Disorders
How do the medical model and the biopsychosocial approach understand psychological disorders?
The Medical Model: Pinel insisted that madness is not demon possession but a sickness of the mind
caused by severe stresses and inhumane conditions. Moral treatment, boosting patients’ morale, talking with them,
replacing brutality with gentleness, isolation with activity, filth with clean air and sunshine. Medical model – concept
that diseases have physical causes that can be diagnosed, treated, and in most cases, cured, often through
treatment in a hospital. Recognizable in mental health movement. Mental illness is also called psychopathology that
needs to be diagnosed on the basis of its symptoms and treated through therapy, which may include time in a
psychiatric hospital.
The Biopsychosocial Approach: All behaviour arises from the interaction of nature and nurture. Mentally ill
attributes the condition to a sickness but there may also be environmental issues such as habits, skills, etc. Cultures
differ in their sources of stress, and hey produce different ways of coping.
Biological Influences: Psychological Influences:
- evolution - stress
- individual genes - trauma
- brain structure and chemistry - learned helplessness
- mood-related perceptions & memories
Psychological Disorder
Social-Cultural Influences:
-roles
-expectations
-definitions of normality and disorder
Are psychological disorders universal, or are they culture-specific? Explain with examples.
Some psychological disorders are culture-specific. For example, anorexia nervosa occurs mostly in Western
cultures, and taijin-kyofusho appears largely in Japan. Other disorders, such as schizophrenia, occur in all cultures.
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Document Summary

Textbook: psychology tenth edition in modules authored by david g. myers. Psychological disorders are patterns of thoughts, feelings, or actions that are deviant, distressful, and dysfunctional. Being different (deviant) from most other people in one"s culture is part of what it takes to define a psychological disorder. Standards for deviance also vary with time, vary by context and culture. Dysfunction is key to defining a disorder: an intense fear of spiders may be deviant, but if it doesn"t impair your life it is not a disorder. 5% of children and 3% of teens diagnosed; 2. 5% of adults exhibit adhd symptoms, diagnosed three times more often in boys than girls. Adhd often coexists with a learning disorder or with defiant and temper-prone behaviour. A lawyer is distressed by feeling the need to wash his hands 100 times a day he has no time left to meet with clients, and his colleagues are wondering about his competence.

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