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PSYC 1000 Chapter Notes -Karen Horney, Freudian Slip, Unconscious Mind


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 1000
Professor
Harvey Marmurek

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Course: PSYC*1000 (DE)
Professor: Harvey Marmurek
Schedule: Summer, 2012
Textbook: Psychology Tenth Edition in Modules authored by David G. Myers
Textbook ISBN: 9781464102615
Module 40: Psychodynamic Theories
Psychodynamic theories of personality view human behaviour as a dynamic interaction between the conscious
and unconscious mind, including associated motives and conflicts. These theories are descended from Freud‟s
psychoanalysis, which first focused clinical attention on our unconscious mind
Freud’s Psychoanalytic Perspective: Exploring the Unconscious
How did Sigmund Freud’s treatment of psychological disorders lead to his view of the unconscious mind?
Speaking of ego, repression, projection, complex (as in “inferiority complex”), sibling rivalry, Freudian slips, and
fixation.
Freud turned to free association, in which he told the patient to relax and say whatever came to mind, no matter
how embarrassing or trivial. He assumed that a line of mental dominoes had fallen from his patients‟ distant past
to their troubled present. He believed free association would allow him to retrace that line, following a chain of
thought leading into the patient‟s unconscious, where painful conscious memories, often from childhood, could be
retrieved and released. He called his theory of personality and the associated treatment techniques
psychoanalysis.
Freud believed that the mind is mostly hidden. Iceberg = ID (unconscious energy) lies below the water; EGO
(mostly conscious; makes peace between the id and the superego) lies mostly above the water and to the left;
SUPEREGO (internalized ideas) lies mostly above the water and to the right, but more under the water than the
EGO. == == == Conscious mind (above water); Preconscious outside awareness but accessible (a bit above
and under water) and Unconscious mind (below water). Beneath our awareness is the larger unconscious mind
with its thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories. Some of these thoughts we store temporarily in a
preconscious area, from which we can retrieve them into conscious awareness. Of greater interest to Freud
was the mass of unacceptable passions and thoughts that he believed we repress, or forcibly block from our
consciousness because they would be too unsettling to acknowledge.
For Freud the determinist, nothing was ever accidental. He believed he could glimpse the unconscious seeping
not only into people‟s free associations, beliefs, habits, and symptoms but also into slips of the tongue and pen.
The remembered content of dreams (their manifest content) he believed to be a censored expression of the
dreamer‟s unconscious wishes (the dream‟s latent content). inner conflicts.
Personality Structure
What was Freuds view of personality?
Human personality - including its emotions and strivings - arises from a conflict between impulse and restraint
between our aggressive, pleasure-seeking biological urges and our internalized social controls over these urges.
He believed personality arises from our efforts to resolve this basic conflict to express these impulses in ways
that bring satisfaction without also bringing guilt or punishment.
ID: unconscious psychic energy contantly strives to satisfy basic drives to survive, reproduce, and aggress.
Operates on the pleasure principle immediate gratification. (Newborn infant crying out for satisfaction)
EGO: operating on the reality principle, seeks to gratify id‟s impulses in realistic ways that will bring long-term
pleasure
SUPEREGO: around age 4 or 5, recognizes the demands of the newly emerging superego, the voice of our moral
compass (conscious) that forces the ego to consider not only the real but the ideal. Someone with exceptionally
strong superego may be virtuous yet guilt-ridden; another with a weak superego may be wantonly self-indulgent
and remorseless.

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The ego struggles to reconcile demands that oppose the id and superego.
Personality Development
What developmental stages did Freud propose?
Series of psychosexual stages which the id‟s pleasure-seeking energies focus on distinct pleasure-sensitive areas
of the body called erogenous zones.
Stage
Focus
Oral (0-18 months)
Pleasure centres on the mouth sucking, biting, chewing
Anal (18-36 months)
Pleasure focuses on bowel and bladder elimination; coping with demands for control
Phallic (3-6 years)
Pleasure zone is the genitals; coping with incestuous sexual feelings
Latency (6 to puberty)
A phase of dormant sexual feelings
Genital (puberty on)
Maturation of sexual interests
Oedipus complex Oedipus who unknowingly killed his father and married his mother; females Electra
complex
Identification process children‟s superegos gain strength as they incorporate many of their parents‟ values.
Identification with the same-sex parent provides our gender identity.
Conflicts unresolved during earlier psychosexual stages could surface as maladaptive behaviour in the adult
years. A person who had been orally overindulged or deprived (perhaps by abrupt, early weaning) might fixate at
the oral stage and that grown adult may exhibit either passive dependence or an exaggerated denial of this
dependence; or seek oral gratification by smoking or excessive eating.
Defense Mechanisms
How did Freud think people defended themselves against anxiety?
Freud believed that anxiety is the price we pay for civilization. Sometimes the ego fears losing control of the inner
war between the id and superego. The presumed result is unfocused anxiety that leaves us feeling unsettled but
unsure why. Ego protects itself with defense mechanisms tactics that reduce or redirect anxiety by distorting
reality. All defense mechanisms function indirectly and unconsciously. Repression underlies all the other
defense mechanisms.
Defense
Mechanism
Unconscious process employed to avoid
anxiety-arousing thoughts or feelings
Example
Regression
Retreating to a more infantile psychosexual stage,
where some psychic energy remains fixated.
A little boy reverts to the oral
comfort of thumb-sucking in the car
on the way to his first day of school.
Reaction Formation
Switching unacceptable impulses into their
opposites.
Repressing angry feelings, a person
displays exaggerated friendliness.
Projection
Disguising one‟s own threatening impulses by
attributing them to others.
The thief thinks everyone else is a
thief.
Rationalization
Offering self-justifying explanations in place of the
real, more threatening unconscious reasons for
one‟s actions.
A habitual drinker says she drinks
with her friends just to be sociable.
Displacement
Shifting sexual or aggressive impulses toward a
more acceptable or less threatening object or
person.
A little girl kicks the family dog after
her mother sends her to her room.
Denial
Refusing to believe or even perceive painful
realities.
A partner denies evidence of his
loved one‟s affair.
According to Freuds ideas about the three-part personality structure, the ego operates on the reality principle and
tries to balance demands in a way that produces long-term pleasure rather than pain, the id operates on the
pleasure principle and seeks immediate gratification, and the superego represents the voice of our internalized
ideals (our conscious).
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