PSYC 1000 Chapter Notes -International Standard Book Number
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Course: PSYC*1000 (DE)
Professor: Harvey Marmurek
Schedule: Summer, 2012
Textbook: Psychology – Tenth Edition in Modules authored by David G. Myers
Textbook ISBN: 9781464102615
Module 25: Retrieval
How do external cues, internal emotions, and order of appearance influence memory retrieval?
Process of retrieving memory follows a similar principle like following the path of a spider and how the web
was created – memories are held in storage by a web of associations.
•Priming: After losing his sight, John Hull described difficulty in recalling details; often associations are
activated without our awareness. William James referred to it as priming – wakening of associations;
memoryless memory or invisible memory without your conscious awareness.
•Context-Dependent Memory: Putting yourself back in the context to recall (what was I watching)
•State-Dependent Memory: what we learn in one state (drunk or sober) may be more easily recalled if we
return to that state again.
oMood-congruent – mood may recall other memories in that mood (wedding, love, baby; anger,
broken car, etc.)
•Serial Position Effect: why we have large holes in our memory of a list of recent events; spent more time
rehearsing the earlier names than the later ones. A ‘recency effect’
What is priming?
Priming is the activation (often without our awareness) of associations. Seeing a gun, for example, might
temporarily predispose to interpret an ambiguous face as threatening or recall a boss as nasty.
When we are tested immediately after viewing a list of words, we tend to recall the first and last items best, which is
known as the serial position effect.
Priming: the activation, often unconsciously, of particular associations in memory.
Mood-Congruent Memory: the tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one’s current good or bad
Serial Position Effect: our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list.
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