Stephanie Oliveira 1
Module 45: Antisocial relations
An unjustifiable and usually negative attitude toward a group and its
members. Prejudice involves stereotyped beliefs, negative feelings and a
predisposition to discriminatory actions.
o Stereotype: a generalized (sometimes accurate but often
overgeneralized) belief about a group of people.
o Discrimination: unjustifiable negative behaviour toward a group and
Implicit racial associations
o 9 in 10 white respondents took longer to identify pleasant words as
good when presented with Black-sounding names
o However, they denied harbouring racial prejudice= still carry negative
o When White university women evaluated a flawed essay and were
told it was written by a fellow Black student, they gave markedly
higher ratings and never expressed the harsh criticisms they assigned
to flawed essays supposedly written by White students.
o More likely to think a man is holding a gun if he is Black
Reflexive bodily responses
o When people look at white and black faces, their implicit prejudice
may show up in facial-muscle responses and in the activation of their
emotion processing amygdala.
Social Roots of Prejudice
Just-world phenomenon: the tendency for people to believe the world is
just and that therefore get what they deserve and deserve what they get
When some people have money. Power, and prestige and others do not, the
“haves” usually develop attitudes that justify things as they are.
Us and them: Ingroup and Outgroup
Ingroup: “us” –people with whom we share a common identity
Outgroup: “them” –those perceived as different or apart from our ingroup.
Ingroup bias: the tendency to favour our own group
Emotional Roots of Prejudice
Scapegoat theory: the theory that prejudice offers an outlet for anger by
providing someone to blame Cognitive roots of prejudice
Other-race effect: the ten