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Chapter 4

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PSYC 1010

nd Chapter 4- Central Tendency and Variability Jan. 22 Central Tendency - The descriptive statistic that best represents the center of a data set, the particular value that all the other data seem to be gathered around - Usually at or near the highest point in a histogram or polygon - Can be measured in three different ways:  Mean  Median  Mode  One of the most important ways to understand a distribution of data Mean - The arithmetic average of a group of scores - Calculated by summing all the scores and dividing by the total number of scores - Steps in calculating mean:  Add all of the scores together  Divide the sum of all scores by the total number of scores - Symbols used to represent the mean:  Mean of a sample: M or X (with line over top- X bar)  Mean of a population: μ (mew)  ΣX- used to indicate the total of X’s (scores) in a sample  N- the total number of scores - Statistics  Numbers based on samples - Parameter  Numbers based on populations - Samples= Statistics, Population= Parameters - Step 1: add up all of the scores in the sample= ΣX - Step 2: Divide the sum of all of the scores by the total number of scores - Equation for sample mean: M=ΣX / n - Equation for population mean: μ=ΣX / N Median - Middle score of all the scores in a sample when the scores are arranged in asthnding order - 50 percentile - Steps in calculating median:  Line up all the scores in ascending order  Find the middle score (if odd # of scores, take the median of the two middle #s) Mode - The most common score of all the scores in a sample - Unimodel  When a distribution of scores has one mode - Bimodel  When a distribution has two mode - Multimodel  When a distribution has more than two modes Outliers - An extreme score that is either very high or very low in comparison with the rest of the scores in the sample - Most common reasons for skewed data is a statistical outlier  When there is an outlier, it is usually best to use the median Variability - A numerical way of describing how much spr
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