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Chapter 3

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PSYC 1010

th Chapter 3- Visual Displays of Data January, 17 2013 Common aspects of misleading graphs: 1. The false face validity lie  Whether the method used to collect data seems to represent exactly what it says it represents  Ex. Graph may say its measuring aggression, when it reality it measured shouting 2. The biased scale lie  Slants information in a particular way  Ex. Grading students on “excellent” “good” “fair” “poor”, teachers seem to give more positive responses as it is geared towards more positive with only one negative choice 3. The sneaky sample lie  People in a study are preselected so the data turns a certain way 4. The extrapolation lie  Assumes knowledge of information outside the study (don’t assume a pattern in your data will continue) 5. The inaccurate values lie  Telling the truth in one part of the data, yet visually distorting it in another place 6. The outright lie  Making up data Common Types of Graphs Scatterplots - A graph that depicts the relation between two scale variables - Values of the IV and the DV are marked along the X and Y axis - A dot is used to fill in the appropriate data- each dot represents one piece of data (one person), you can use the size of the dot to represent another variable as well - Steps in creating a scatterplot  Organize the data by participant; each participant will have 2 scores (one on each scale variable)  X-axis labeled with the IV and its possible values, starting with 0 (if practical)  Y-axis labeled with DV and its possible values, starting with 0 (if practical)  Mark the graph above each study participant’s score on the x-axis, next to their corresponding score on the y-axis - Linear Relation  The relation between variables is best described by a straight line  Positive- data flow is upwards and to the right  Negative- data flow is downward and to the right - Nonlinear Relation  The relation between variables is best described as a line that breaks or curves in some way Line Graphs - Used to illustrate the relation between two scale variables - Sometimes the line represents the predicted y scores for each x value, and sometimes the change in a variable over time - Can be constructed from a scatterplot using line of best fit - Time Plot/ Time Series Plot  Graph that plots a scale variable on the y-axis as it changes over an increment of time (e.g. second, day) labeled on the x-axis  In order to create a time plot the IV on the x-axis must involve an increment of time, make a scatterplot, and connect the dots Bar Graphs - Visual depictions of data when the independent variable is nom
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