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Chapter 2

Chapter 2- Frequency Distributions.docx

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PSYC 1010

Chapter 2- Frequency Distributions Frequency Distributions Raw Scores- data that have not yet been transformed or analyzed - Organized into a frequency distribution Frequency Distribution- describes the pattern of a set of numbers by displaying a count or proportion for each possible value of a variable - Frequency Table  Visual depiction of data that shows how often each value occurred; how many scores were at each value  The best way to create an easy-to-understand distribution of data  The data can then be displayed as a grouped frequency table, a frequency histogram, or a frequency polygon  A frequency table shows the pattern of our data by indicating how many participants had each possible score  The data in a frequency table can be graphed in a frequency histogram or a frequency polygon - Steps in creating a frequency table:  Determine the highest and lowest scores  Create two columns: First column labeled with the variable name, Second column labeled “frequency”  List the full range of values that encompasses all the scores in the data set- include all values in the range  Count the number of scores for each value, write the total numbers in the frequency column - Grouped Frequency Tables  Allows us to depict our data visually by reporting the frequencies within a given interval (range of values) rather than the frequencies for a specific value - Steps in creating a grouped frequency table:  Find the highest and lowest scores in the frequency distribution  Determine the full range of data - Always round down to the nearest whole number - Subtract the lowest number from the highest number and add one  Determine the number of intervals and the best interval size  Figure out the number that will be the bottom of the lowest interval - This number must be a multiple of the interval range that we are using (i.e. if we have intervals of 5, than our lowest number must be a multiple of 5 that is closest to our lowest number)  Finish the table by listing the intervals from highest to lowest and then counting the numbers of scores in each Histograms - Look like a bard graph, typically depict scale data with the values of the variable on the x-axis and the frequencies on the y-axis - Each bar reflects the frequency for each value or interval - Constructed from either frequency tables or grouped frequency tables - Bar stacked one against the other, ranging from lower numbers to higher numbers - Steps in creating a histogram:  Draw the x-axis and label it with the variabl
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