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Chapter 5

Chapter 5- Jan. 22nd.docx

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University of Guelph
PSYC 1010

nd Chapter 5- Sampling and Probability Jan. 22 Samples Two main types of samples: - Random Sample  Every member of the population has an equal chance of being selected into the study - Convenience Sample  Uses participants who are readily available  Limits our generalizability (researchers ability to apply findings from one sample or in one context to other samples or contexts) if it results in a sample that is not representative of the population  Replication- refers to the duplication of scientific results, ideally in a different context or with a sample that has different characteristics (do the study again, if the study produces similar results, although the participants are drawn at random, then the study if more valid)  Volunteer sample- special kind of convenience sample in which participants actively choose to participate in a study, participants volunteer or self-select  Random assignment is frequently used, refers to a method we can use once we have a sample, whether or not the sample is randomly selected  Random sample is hardly ever used, refers to a method of creating a sample from a population Random Assignment - If a study has two levels of IV, then participants are randomly assigned to one of two groups - Although some patterns may be seemingly non random, they are still considered to be random - We still run the risk of an accidentally biased sample giving us bad information - Researchers use two main tools to make up for a lack of random selection (when possible) - With random assignment, every participant has an equal chance of being assigned to any level of the independent variable - With replication, a study is repeated, ideally with different participants or in a different context, to see whether the results are consistent Probability - The likelihood that a certain outcome will occur out of all possible outcomes - The actual likelihood of a given outcome in the long run - Ex. Likelihood of getting heads when flipping a coin - When you hear PROBABILITY think PROPORTION. - When you hear PROPORTION think AREA (or percent) Expected Relative-Frequency Probability - Likelihood of an event occurring based on the actual outcome of many, many trials - Only works in the long run- law of large numbers - Trial- each occasion that a given procedure is carried out - Outcome- the result of a trial - Success- the outcome for which we’re trying to determine the probability - Personal Probability  The likelihood of an event occurring based on an individual’s opinion or judgment (subjective probability)  Ex. There’s a 75% chance I’ll finish my paper- our best guess, personal estimated - To calculate probability:  Probability= successes / trials  Determine the total number of trials  Determine the number of these trials that are conside
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