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Chapter 1

PSYC*1010 Chapter 1.docx

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PSYC 1010
Linda Gerber

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PSYC*1010 Chapter#1 Statistics – The practice of collecting, analyzing, interpreting, and reporting numerical data. Two Branches: 1. Descriptive Statistics: Organize, summarize, and communicate numerical info. 2. Inferential Statistics: Use data from sample and generalize about population. Populations and Samples Population – The set of all observations of interest in a particular study. Sample- A set of observations drawn from a population of interest for inclusion in a study. Variables – Observation of physical, attitudinal, and behavioral characteristics that can take on different values. Discrete Observation- Can take on only specific values, ex. Whole #’s. Continuous Variables - Can take on a full range of values (e.g. #’s to several decimals) an infinite # of potential values exists. Discrete Observations Two Kinds: 1. Nominal Variables – Used for observations that have categories, or names as their values. st 2. Ordinal Variables – Observations that have rankings as their values (1 , 2 , 3 …) Continuous Observations Two Kinds: 1. Interval Variables – Used for observations that have #’s as their values; the distance (or interval) between pairs of consecutive #’s is assumed to be equal. 2. Ratio Variables – Variables that meet the requirements of an interval variable but also have a meaningful zero point. - Sometimes interval and ratio variables are referred to as scale variables. Scale Variables – A variable that meets the criteria for an interval or ratio variable. Independent, Dependent, & Confounding Variables - 3 types of variables considered in research: Independent Va
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