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Chapter 4

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PSYC 1010
Mark Mc Cullagh

PSY*1010 – Chapter #4 Need To Know: - What a distribution is. - How to read histograms and frequency polygons. Understanding Summation Notation X means you need to sum all the x-values. Central Tendency - Central tendency is a statistical measure that identifies a point as representative of the entire distribution. - Central tendency helps to determine the “typical” single score for a distribution or set of scores. - What is typical for a large population? o Eg. Typical income, typical height, typical temperature… - To find the “centre” or most typical score even when the distribution I skewed or the data is messy, there are three methods for determining central tendency. - You must always remember that the goal of any method of central tendency is to find the most typical score. Measures of Central Tendency Mean – The sum of all the scores, divided by the number of scores (arithmetic average). Median – The middle score – the value that divides the distribution in half when the observations are ordered in terms of size. Mode – The most frequent score. Calculating The Mean: Notation - Notation is a key issue in statistics. Sometimes there’s more than one symbol for the same thing. Both of the symbols bellow are frequently used to represent the (sample) mean. M or (X Bar) - Sometimes we refer to the mean as the average. Calculating The Mean - Population:  = X/N - Sample: M = X/n Why Do We Care About The Mean and Other Measures of Central Tendency? - Imagine your boss asked you to measure the weights of everyone in this PSYC*1010 class. Assuming you measured all the weights, how would you report this info back to your boss? - Would you provide a list of all the weights? - No, you would provide a single # that was representative of the entire distribution. Calculating The Median - Line up the scores in ascending order. - Find the middle #. o For an odd # of scores: 1. Line the scores up in ascending order. 2. Find the middle number of the order of values. o For an even # of scores: 1. Line the scores up in ascending order. 2. Divide the # of scores by 2 to get a starting point. 3. Take the average of the scores around this position in the list of ordered values. Calculating The Mode 1. Line up the scores in ascending order. 2. Find the most frequent score. 3. That score is the mode. Mode and Nominal Data - The mode i
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