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Chapter 1

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 1010
Professor
Anne Bergen
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter 1  The Two Branches of Statistics Descriptive Statistics • Descriptive statistics organizes, summarizes, and communicates a group of  numerical observations o Describe large amounts of data in just a few numbers Inferential Statistics • Inferential statistics uses sample data to make general estimates about the larger  population o Infer or make an intelligent guess about the population Distinguishing Between a Sample and Population • A sample is a set of observations drawn from the population of interest • The population includes all possible observations about which we’d like to know  something o Samples are used more often because it is hard to study every person  Too expensive and take too long How To Transform Observations Into Variables • Variables are any observation of a physical, attitudinal, or behavioral  characteristic that ca take on different values o Behavioral scientist study abstract variables such as self­esteem • Discrete variables can take on only specific values (whole numbers) o Mo other values can exist in these numbers (no decimals) • Continuous variables can take on a full range of values (numbers that have several  decimal places) o Infinite number of potential values exist Discrete Observations • Two types of observations that are discrete o Nominal variables are used for observations that have categories or names  as their values  Men being coded 1 and women being coded 2 randomly o Ordinal variables are used for observations that have rankings as their  st nd rd values (1  2  3 …) st  You’re ranked 1  because you’re the best Continuous Observations • Two types of observations that are continuous o Interval variables are used for observations that have numbers as their  values, and the distance between pairs of consecutive numbers to be equal  Also discrete because time is always whole numbers 1­2 is the  same as 5­6 equal distance o Ratio variables meets the criteria for an interval variable but also has a  meaningful zero point  Time running out in a basketball game • Scale variable meets the criteria for an interval variable or ratio variable o A
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