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Chapter

2-Introduction to the Physiology of Perception.docx

14 pages41 viewsFall 2013

Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 1010
Professor
Anne Bergen

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2-Introduction to the Physiology of Perception 01/09/2014
Outline
-Major divisions of nervous system
-Cells of the nervous system
-Neural communication
Nervous System
-A network of nerve cells (aka neurons) that transmit electrochemical responses throughout body
-Two major divisions:
Central
Peripheral
-Central Nervous System (brain and spinal cord)
-Peripheral Nervous System (everything else)
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*memorize labels
-Frontal Lobe: where all these senses are integrated
reticular theory: nervous system consisted of a large network of fused nerve cells
neuron theory: nervous system consisted of distinct elements or cells
Doctrine of specific nerve energies: our perceptions depend on “nerve energies” reaching the
brain and that specific quality we experience depends on which nerves are stimulate
The Cells of the Nervous System
-The human nervous system is comprised of two kinds of cells:
Neurons
Cells designed to communicate info throughout the body with chemicals
Respond to stimuli from the environment, and transduce these stimuli into electrical signals
(transduction)
Communicate with other neurons, so that these signals can travel long distances (transmission)
Glia
“caretakers” of the brain (cleansing, regulates blood flow, etc.)
change the way we think
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-In this course we focus on neurons:
Approx 100 billion neurons linked via 100 trillion connections!
What is the cell structure of a neuron?
Are there different types of neurons?
What purpose do they serve?
-Key components of neurons:
Cell body
Contains mechanisms to keep the cell alive
Dendrites
Info is going to come into the cell from other neurons through dendrites
Branch out from the cell body to receive electrical signals from other neurons
Axon (CNS) or nerve fiber (PNS)
Sends info out at the axon
Filled with fluid that conducts electrical signals
-Dendrites: branching fibers with a surface lined with synaptic receptors responsible for bringing information
into the neuron
-Cell body: contains the nucleus, mitochondria, ribosomes, and other structures common to most cells
Also responsible for the metabolic work of the neuron
-Axon: think fiber of a neuron responsible for transmitting nerve impulses toward other neurons, organs, or
muscles
The Cells of the Nervous System
-Neurons vary in size, shape, and function
-The function is closely related to the shape of the neuron
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