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PSYC 2310
Anneke Olthof

Psychology 1200 Textbook Study Notes Chapters 1, 2, 10, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, Appendix Chapter 1 (3Qs): - Psychology: the scientific study of behaviour and the factors that influence it - Behaviour: directly observable activity; mental processes (thinking, motivation) - Basic Research: the quest for knowledge purely for its own sake - Applied Research: designed to solve specific practical problems - Goals of Psychology o Describe, Explain and Understand, Predict, Influence or Control - Robbers Cave to the Jigsaw Program o Psychologists at a camp studied boys in Robbers Cave, Oklahoma  The boys were divided into two groups and called themselves the Eagles and the Rattlers  They lived in different cabins but did activities together and got along well until the experimenters began to pit them against one another in a series of competitive contests  Eventually, strong hostility grew between the two groups and discrimination took place (people would not be friends with someone of the other group)  The hostility was reduced by placing the children in situations where they had to work together to accomplish a certain task o Jigsaw program is based on the Robbers Cave experiment  It is a program based on making children have to work together to attain a common goal  Ex. Each person in the group is given certain information that they need to know; need to combine knowledge in order to succeed - Charles Whitman = perfectly normal guy, then kills his wife and mother. Then kills a whole bunch of people at his university. Then kills himself. To explain this, psychologists look at three big factors: biological, psychological, and environmental. - Perspectives: vantage points for analyzing behaviour and its biological, psychological, and environmental causes. o Six major perspectives  Biological Perspective: focuses on the physical side of the human nature. Brain and genes.  Mind-body dualism: the belief that the mind is a spiritual entity not subject to the physical laws that govern the body  Monism: the “mind” is not a spiritual entity. Mind and body are one.  Charles Darwin’s evolutionary theory: Natural selection (any inheritable characteristic that increases the likelihood of survival will be maintained because individuals having the characteristics will be more likely to survive and reproduce)  Evolutionary psychology: an emerging discipline that focuses on the role of evolution in the development of behaviour and mental mechanisms  Sociobiology: complex social behaviours are built into the human species as products of evolution  Behaviour genetics: the study of how behavioural tendencies are influences by genetic factors  Cognitive Perspective: views humans as information processors and problem solvers whose actions are governed by thought and planning.  Structuralism: the analysis of the mind in terms of its basic elements  Introspection: “looking within”  Functionalism: psychology should study the functions (the whys) of consciousness, rather than its structure  Gestalt psychology: how elements of experience are organized into wholes. Believe the whole is greater than, and different from, the sum of its parts.  Insight: the sudden perception of a useful relationship or solution to a problem (a kind of “Aha!” experience)  Artificial intelligence: develops computers models of complex human thought, reasoning, and problem solving  Social Constructivism: what we consider “reality” is in large part our own mental creation.  Piaget identified stages of development that unfold as children mature  Psychodynamic Perspective: searches for the causes of behaviour within the workings of our personality, emphasizing the role of unconscious processes and unresolved conflicts from the past  Hysteria: a psychological disorder in which physical symptoms such as blindness, pain, or paralysis develop without any apparent organic cause  Repression: defence mechanism which protects us by keeping anxiety-arousing impulses, feelings, and memories in the unconscious depths of the mind  Freud’s psychoanalytic theory fit into this perspective.  Behavioural Perspective: focuses on the role of the external environment in shaping and governing our actions.  British empiricism: all ideas and knowledge are gained empirically (through the senses)  Behaviourism: a school of thought that emphasizes environmental control of behaviour through learning  Behaviour modification: powerful techniques of behaviour change  Cognitive behaviourism: an attempt to bridge the gap between the behavioural and cognitive perspectives and to combine them  Humanistic Perspective: emphasize free will, innate tendencies toward growth, and the attempt to find ultimate meaning in one’s existence  Self-actualization: the reaching of one’s individual potential  Terror-management theory: an innate desire for continued life combined with the uniquely human awareness of the inevitability of death, creates an anxiety called existential terror  Sociocultural Perspective: focuses on the manner in which culture is transmitted to its members and on the similarities and differences that occur among people from diverse cultures  Culture: refers to the enduring values, beliefs, behaviours, and traditions that are shared by a large group of people and are passed on from one generation to the next  Norms: rules that specify what is acceptable and expected behaviour for members of that group  Individualism: an emphasis on personal goals and a self-identity based primarily on one’s own attributes and achievements  Collectivism: individual goals are subordinated to those of the group, and personal identity is defined largely by the ties that bind one to family and other social groups - Interaction: the presence or strength of one factor can influence the effects of other factors - Experimental psychology: psychologists who seek to understand behaviour by doing research - Applied psychology: psychologists who use the knowledge accumulated from the experimental psychologists to help people Chapter 2 (6Qs): - Experiments: o Two main advantages: requires researchers to be extremely clear and precise o Trains researchers to be skeptical and critical of their own and other’s work - Experimental research: o Advantage: cause-effect conclusions o Disadvantage: artificial and too simple; may have ethical and/or practical issues - Diffusion of responsibility: a psychological state in which each person feels decreased personal responsibility for intervening - Hypothesis: a tentative explanation or prediction about some phenomenon - Theory: a set of formal statements that explains how and why certain events are related to one another - A good theory has several important characteristics: o It conforms to the law of parsimony: if two theories can explain and predict the same phenomena equally well, the simpler theory is the preferred one. - Variable: any characteristics that can differ - Operational definition: defines a variable in terms of the specific procedures used to produce or measure it - Self-report measures: ask people to report on their own knowledge, beliefs, feelings, experiences, or behaviour - Social desirability bias: the tendency of participants to give an answer that gives a good impression rather than one that reflects how they truly feel or behave - Archival measures: already-existing records or documents - Descriptive methods: involve recording observations or surveys - Correlational methods: involve measuring the strength of an association between two or more events - Experimental methods: involve manipulations to establish cause and effect relationships between two or more events - Descriptive research: seeks to identify how humans and other animals behave, particularly in natural settings - Descriptive statistics: used to organize raw data into meaningful descriptions - Inferential statistics: used to determine if your findings are genuine and not due to chance, and likely to be found in the population as a whole - Case Study: an in-depth analysis of an individual, group, or event. - Population: consists of all the individuals about whom we are interested in drawing a conclusion - Sample: a subset of individuals drawn from the larger population of interest - Representative sample: one that reflects the important characteristics of the population - Random sampling: used to select individuals in each subgroup (each have an equal chance of being chosen) - Random assignment: each person in your study has an equal chance of going into either of your two groups - Correlational research: measuring variables, not manipulating them - Correlation coefficient: a statistic that indicates the direction and strength of the association between two variables - Correlational research: o Advantages: useful for studying topics that can’t be studied using experimental methods o Disadvantages: does not allow cause-effect conclusions - Three different types of correlational research: o Naturalistic observation; case studies; questionnaires - Independent variable: refers to the factor that is manipulated - Dependent variable: the factor that is measured; may be influenced by the independent variable - Experimental group: the group that received a treatment of the independent variable - Control group: not exposed to the treatment; provides a standard - Random assignment: each participant has an equal likelihood of being assigned to any one group within an experiment - Validity: refers to how well an experimental procedure actually tests what it is designed to test - Internal validity: represents the degree to which an experiment supports clear causal conclusions - Confounding of variables: means that two variables are intertwined in such a way that we cannot determine which one has influenced a dependent variable - Demand characteristics: cues that participants pick up about the hypothesis of a study or about how they are supposed to behave - Placebo: refers to an inactive or inert substance - Placebo effect: people receiving a treatment show a change in behaviour because of their expectations - Experimenter expectancy effects: refers to subtle and unintentional ways in which experimenters influence their participants to respond in a manner that is consistent with the experimenter’s hypothesis - Double-blind procedure: minimizing participant placebo effects and experimenter expectancy effects. Both the participant and experimenter are kept “blind” as to which experimental condition the participant is in. - External validity: the degree to which the results of a study can be generalized to other people, settings, and conditions. - Replication: the process of repeating a study to determine whether the original findings can be duplicated - Informed consent: can withdraw from experiment whenever without penalty; participant informed of study and risks involved - Extraneous variables: any variable other than the independent variable that can have an effect on the dependent variable - Bimodal: two peaks (frequency distribution) - Inferential statistics: o Comparing two groups of participants (t-test) o Comparing more than two groups of participants (f-test) Chapter 10 (3Qs): - Intelligence: is a concept, or construct, that refers to the ability to acquire knowledge, to think and reason effectively, and to deal adaptively with the environment. - Stanford-Binet: mostly verbal items, single IQ score. - Wechsler scales: series of subtests (verbal and performance) - Deviation IQ: Today’s intelligence tests provide an “IQ” score that is not a quotient at all, but is based on a person’s performance relative to the scores of a large sample of other people his or her age - Achievement test: designed to find out how much they have learned - Aptitude test: containing novel puzzle-like problems that presumably go beyond prior learning and are thought to measure the applicant’s potential for future learning and performance - Psychological test: method for measuring individual differences related to some psychological concept, or construct, based on a sample of relevant behaviour in a scientifically designed and controlled situation - Reliability: refers to consistency of measurement - Test-retest reliability: assessed by administering the measure to the same group of participants on two separate occasions and correlating the two sets of scores - After about age 7, scores on intelligence tests show considerable stability - Internal consistency: consistency of measurement within the test itself. If a test is internally consistent, all of the items within a test are measuring the same thing. - Interjudge reliability: consistency of measurement when different people score the same test - Validity: how well a test actually measures what it is designed to measure - Construct validity: the extent to which a test measures psychological construct that it is supposed to measure - Content validity: refers to whether the items on a test measure all the knowledge or skills that are assumed to comprise the construct of interest - Predictive validity: defined by how highly test scores correlate with, or can predict, criterion measures - Standardization: creating a well-controlled, or standardized, environment for administering the intelligence test so that other uncontrolled factors will not influence scores - Norms: test results derived from a large sample that represents particular age segments of the population. These normative scores provide a basis for interpreting a given individual’s score - Normal distribution: when norms are collected for mental skills, the scores usually form a bell-shaped curve - Two major approaches have been taken to studying intelligence. o Psychometric approach: attempts to map the structure of intellect and to specify the kinds of mental ability that underlie test performance o Cognitive approach: studies the specific thought processes that underlie mental competencies - Psychometrics: the statistical study of psychological tests. o Standardization, reliability, and validity are all psychometric concepts - Factor analysis: analyzes patterns of correlations between test scores in order to discover clusters of measures that correlate highly with one another but not with measures in other clusters - Thurstone had 7 distinct abilities called primary mental abilities - Crystallized intelligence: the ability to apply previously acquired knowledge to current problems (long- term) - Fluid intelligence: the ability to deal with novel problem-solving situations for which personal experience does not provide a solution (short-term) - Savants: intellectually disabled in a general sense, yet they exhibit striking skills in specific areas - Emotional intelligence: involves the ability to read others’ emotions accurately, to respond to them appropriately, to motivate oneself, to be aware of one’s own emotions, and to regulate and control one’s own emotional responses - Sternberg’s triarchic theory of intelligence: o Metacomponents  The higher order processes used to plan and regulate task performance o Performance components  The actual mental processes used to perform the task o Knowledge-acquisition components  Allow us to learn from our experience, store information in memory, and combine new insight with previously acquired information - Analytical intelligence: involves the kinds of academically oriented problem-solving skills assessed by traditional intelligence tests - Practical intelligence: refers to the skills needed to cope with everyday demands and to manage oneself and other people effectively - Creative intelligence: the mental skills needed to deal adaptively with novel problems - Men, on average, tend to outperform women slightly on certain spatial tasks o They are more accurate in target-directed skills, such as throwing and catching objects o They tend to perform slightly better on tests of mathematical reasoning - Women, on average, perform better on tests of perceptual speed, verbal fluency, mathematical calculation, and precise manual tasks requiring fine motor coordination - Approximately 3-5% of the North American population, or about 10 million people, are classified as mentally retarded, or cognitively disabled - Mainstreaming: allows many cognitively challenged children to attend school in regular classrooms - Gifted individuals have a higher than normal IQ (120 or above) and show superior abilities in a particular area Chapter 12 (6Qs): - Development: refers to the continuities and changes that occur within the individual between conception and death - Two processes lead to developmental change: o Maturation: the biologically-timed unfolding of changes within the individual according to that individual’s genetic plan o Learning: the experiences that we go through that lead to enduring changes in our thoughts, behaviours, and feelings - Interactionist perspective: the view that developmental change is the product of what happens when maturation and learning interact with one another - Measuring infant behaviour: o Habituation procedure o Evoked potentials (brain waves) o High-amplitude sucking method o Preference method - Competence-performance distinction: an individual may fail a task not because they lack those cognitive abilities, but because they were unable to demonstrate those abilities - Critical period: an age range in which certain experiences must occur for development to proceed normally or along a certain path - Sensitive period: an optimal age range for certain experiences, but if those experiences occur at another time, normal development will still be possible. - Cross-sectional design: comparing people of different ages at the same point in time - Longitudinal design: repeatedly tests the same cohort as it grows older - Sequential design: individuals from different age groups are repeatedly tested over some subset of their lifespan - Teratogens: environmental agents that cause abnormal prenatal development - Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS): consists of a group of abnormalities resulting from prenatal exposure to maternal alcohol consumption which include facial abnormalities, small malformed brains, and small stature - Vision: the LEAST developed sense at birth - Visual habituation procedure: the same stimulus is presented repeatedly until infant looking time declines (usually by 50%). - When a novel stimulus is presented, infants usually look longer at the novel rather than the familiar stimulus. This is evidence that infants have a memory and that they discriminate between familiar and novel stimuli. - Cephalocaudal principle: the tendency for development to proceed in a head-to-foot direction - Proximodistal principle: the development begins along the innermost parts of the body and continues toward the outermost parts - Reflexes: automatic, “inborn” behaviours elicited by specific stimuli (present at birth) - Schemas: organized patterns of thought and action - Assimilation: the process by which new experiences are incorporated into existing schemas - Accommodation: the process by which new experiences cause existing schemas to change - Piaget’s Model of Cognitive Development o Sensorimotor stage: lasts from birth to about age two; infants understand their world primarily through sensory experiences and physical (motor) interactions with objects  Object permanence: the ability to understand that an object continues to exist even when it disappears from sight o Preoperational stage: around age two; they represent the world symbolically through words and mental images, but do not yet understand basic mental operations or rules  Conservation: the principle that basic properties of objects, such as their volume, mass, or quantity stay the same even though their outward appearance may change  Egocentrism: difficulty in viewing the world from someone else’s perspective o Concrete Operational stage: lasts from about ages 7-12; children can perform basic mental operations concerning problems that involve tangible objects and situations o Formal Operational stage: individuals are able to think logically and systematically about both concrete and abstract problems, form hypotheses, and test them in a thoughtful way - Zone of Proximal Development: the difference between what a child can do independently, and what the child can do with assistance from adults or more advances peers - Things that improve throughout childhood: o Information-processing speed o Memory capabilities o Metacognition (an awareness of one’s own cognitive processes)  Older children display greater awareness of their own mental processes than do younger children  For example: older children are better at judging how well they understand material for a test or directions to someone’s house. - Theory of mind: a person’s beliefs about how the “mind” works, and what others are thinking about - Kohlberg’s Stage Model: o Preconventional moral reasoning: based on anticipated punishments or rewards o Conventional moral reasoning: based on conformity to social expectations, laws, and duties o Postconventional moral reasoning: based on well thought out, general moral principles - Personality: a distinctive yet somewhat consistent pattern of thinking, feeling, and behaving - Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory: o Basic trust vs. basic mistrust o Autonomy vs. shame and doubt  If parents unduly restrict children or make harsh demands during toilet training, children develop shame and doubt and doubt about their abilities and later lack the courage to be independent o Initiative vs. guilt o Industry vs. inferiority  Children who experience pride and encouragement in mastering tasks develop “industry”—a striving to achieve. Repeated failure and lack of praise for trying leads to a sense of inferiority. - Imprinting: sudden, biologically primed form of attachment - Attachment: refers to the strong emotional bond that develops between children and their primary caregivers - Attachment behaviour: o Indiscriminate attachment behaviour: newborns cry, vocalize, and smile, and they emit these behaviours toward everyone o Discriminate attachment behaviour: three months of age; infants direct their attachment behaviours more toward familiar, regular caregivers o Specific attachment behaviour: seven or eight months of age; infants develop their first meaningful attachment to specific caregivers - Stranger anxiety: distress over contact with unfamiliar people, emerges around age six or seven months, and ends by 18 months of age. - Separation anxiety: distress over being separated from a primary caregiver, typically begins a little later, peaks around age 12 to 16 months, and disappears between two and three years of age - Strange Situation Test (SST): test for examining infant attachment (infant first plays with toys in the mother’s presence; stranger enters room and interacts with child; soon, mother leaves; later, stranger leaves and child is alone; finally, mother returns) o Securely attached infants: explore the playroom and react positively to strangers. They are distressed when the mother leaves and happily greet her when she returns. o Insecure attached infants:  Anxious-resistant: fearful when the mother is present, demand her attention, and are highly distressed when she leaves. They are not soothed when she returns and may angrily resist her attempts at contact.  Anxious-avoidant: show few signs of attachment and seldom cry when the mother leaves. They don’t seek contact when she returns, but won’t resist contact if the mother initiates it. - Parenting styles: o Authoritative parents: controlling but warm. Children with authoritative parents tend to have higher self-esteem, are higher achievers in school, have fewer conduct problems, and are more considerate of others. o Authoritarian parents: exert control over their children, but do so within a cold, unresponsive, or rejecting relationship. Their children tend to have lower self-esteem, be less popular with peers, and perform more poorly in school than children with authoritative parents. o Indulgent parents: have warm and caring relationships with their children, but do not provide the guidance and discipline that helps children learn responsibility and concern for others. Their children tend to be more immature and self-centered. o Neglectful parents: provide neither warmth nor rules and guidance. Their children are most likely to be insecurely attached, have low achievement motivation and disturbed relationships with peers and adults at school, and to be impulsive and aggressive. - Gender identity: a sense of “femaleness” or “maleness” that becomes a central aspect of our personal identity - Gender constancy: the understanding that being male or female is a permanent part of a person, develops around age six to seven - Sex-role stereotypes: beliefs about the types of characteristics and behaviours that are appropriate for boys and girls to possess - Socialization: refers to the process by which we acquire the beliefs, values, and behaviours of a group, plays a key role in shaping out gender identity and sex-role stereotypes - Sex-typing: involves treating others differently based on whether they are female or male. - Puberty: a period of rapid maturation in which the person becomes capable of sexual reproduction - Formal operational thinking: attained during adolescence; Adolescents can more easily contemplate abstract and hypothetical issues, ranging from scientific problems to questions about social justice and the meaning of life - Adolescent egocentrism: o Adolescents overestimate the uniqueness of their feelings and experiences, which is called the personal fable. (ex. “Nobody will ever understand how I feel”) o Many adolescents feel that they are always “on stage” and that “Everybody’s going to notice” how they look and what they do; this is called imaginary audience - The search for identity: o Identity versus role confusion o Identity diffusion: have not yet gone through an identity crisis, and remain uncommitted to a coherent set of values or roles o Moratorium: currently experiencing a crisis, but have not resolved it o Identity achievement: have gone through a crisis and successfully resolved it - Post-formal thought: people can reason logically about opposing points of view and accept contradictions and irreconcilable differences - Information Processing and Memory: o Perceptual speed (reaction time): declines steadily after the mid-thirties o Memory for new factual information: declines during adulthood o Spatial memory: declines with age o Recall: declines more strongly than recognition, because recall requires more processing resources - Social clock: a set of cultural norms concerning the optimal age range for work, marriage, parenthood, and other major life experiences to occur - Stages and Critical Events: o Intimacy vs. Isolation  The major developmental challenge of young adulthood (ages 20-40) – people form close adult friendships, fall in love, and marry. o Generativity vs. Stagnation  Middle adulthood (ages 40-60) brings this.  Through careers, volunteer work, raising children, or involvement in religious and political activities, people achieve generativity by doing things for others, exercising leadership, and making the world a better place. o Integrity vs. Despair  Late adulthood (over 60)  The final crisis; older adults review their life and evaluate its meaning. If the major crises of earlier stages have been successfully resolved, the person experiences integrity (a sense of completeness and fulfillment). If they did not achieve positive outcomes at earlier stages, they may experience despair and regret that they cannot relive their lives in a more fulfilling way. - Establishing a Career: o Growth stage: in childhood and through our mid-twenties, we form initial impressions about the types of jobs we like or dislike, followed by a more earnest “exploration stage” in which we form tentative ideas about a preferred career and pursue the necessary education or training o Growth, exploration, establishment, maintenance, decline o From their mid-twenties to mid-forties, people often enter an establishment phase during which they begin to make their mark.  Careers tend to become more stable by the end of this period, and people enter a maintenance stage that continues through the rest of middle adulthood and into late adulthood o Married women in the workforce experience greater “interrole conflict” than married men, as they try to juggle the demands of career and family - Death and Dying: o Terminally ill patients often experienced five stages as they coped with impending death  Denial: the person refuses to accept that the illness was terminal  Anger: denial gives way to anger  Bargaining: example—“Lord, please let me live long enough to see my grandchild”  Depression: patients begin to grieve  Acceptance: a resigned sense of peacefulness Chapter 13 (7Qs): - Attributions: judgments about the causes of our own and other people’s behaviour and outcomes - Personal (internal) attributions: infer that people’s behaviour is caused by their characteristics - Situational (external) attributions: infer that aspects of the situation cause a behaviour - Three types of information determine the attribution we make: o Consistency, distinctiveness, and consensus o When consistency, distinctiveness, and consensus are all high, we are likely to make a situational attribution. o When consistency is high, and the other two factors are low, we make a personal attribution - Fundamental attribution error: we underestimate the impact of the situation and overestimate the role of personal factors when explaining other people’s behaviour - Self-serving bias: making relatively more personal attributions for successes and more situational attributions for failures - Primacy effect: refers to our tendency to attach more importance to the initial information that we learn about a person - Recency effects: giving greater weight to the most recent information - Mental set: a readiness to perceive the world in a particular way - Stereotype: a generalized belief about a group or category of people - Self-fulfilling prophecy: seeing what we expect to see. When people’s erroneous expectations lead them to act toward others in a way that brings about the expected behaviours - Attitude: a positive or negative evaluative reaction toward a stimulus - Theory of planned behaviour: our intention to engage in a behaviour is strongest when we have a positive attitude toward that behaviour, when subjective norms support our attitudes, and when we believe that the behaviour is under our control o Subjective norms: our perceptions of what other people think we should do - Theory of cognitive dissonance: people strive for consistency in their cognitions o When two or more cognitions contradict one another, the person experiences an uncomfortable state of tension (cognitive dissonance) and becomes motivated to reduce this dissonance o Ex. “I am a truthful person” and “I just told another student that those boring tasks were interesting” - Behaviour that is inconsistent with our attitude is called counterattitudinal behaviour - Self-perception theory: we make inferences about our own attitudes in much the same way: by observing how we behave - Persuasion o Involves a communicator who delivers a message through a channel to an audience within a surrounding context o Communicator credibility: how believable the communicator is  Credibility has two major components: expertise and trustworthiness  The most effective persuader is one who appears both to be an expert and to be presenting the truth in an unbiased manner, as well as one who advocates a point of view contrary to his or her own self-interest o Two-sided refutational approach: A two-sided message will be perceived as less biased.  A highly credible communicator can afford to present a more discrepant viewpoint than a low-credibility communicator. But, in general, a moderate degree of discrepancy is more effective.  Fear arousal works best when the message evokes moderate fear and provides people with effective, feasible ways to reduce the threat o Central route to persuasion: occurs when people think carefully about the message and are influenced because they find the arguments compelling. o Peripheral route to persuasion: occurs when people do not scrutinize the message, but are influenced mostly by other factors (such as a speaker’s attractiveness or a message’s emotional appeal) - Social facilitation: an increased tendency to perform one’s dominant response in the mere presence of others - Social norms: are shared expectations about how people should think, feel, and behave - Social role: consists of a set of norms that characterizes how people in a given social position ought to behave - Informational social influence: at times we follow the opinions or behaviour of other people because we believe they have accurate knowledge and what they are doing is “right” - Normative social influence: we may conform to obtain rewards that come from being accepted by other people, while at the same time avoiding their rejection - Factors That Affect Conformity: o Group size: Conformity increases with group size from 1-5 people; After that, conformity remains the same o Presence of a dissenter: when one confederate disagrees with the others (this greatly reduces participants’ conformity) - Norm of reciprocity: involves the expectation that when others treat us well, we should respond in kind - Door-in-the-face technique: a persuader makes a large request, expecting you to reject it, and then presents a smaller request - Foot-in-the-door technique: a persuader gets you to comply with a small request first and later presents a larger request - Lowballing: a persuader gets you to commit to some action and then—before you actually perform the behaviour—he or she increases the “cost” of that same behaviour - Deindividuation: a loss of individuality that leads to disinhibited behaviour - Social loafing: the tendency for people to expend less individual effort when working in a group than when working alone - Collective effort model: on a collective task, people will put forth effort only to the extent that they expect their effort to contribute to obtaining a valued goal - Group polarization: when a group of like-minded people discusses an issue, the “average” opinion of group members tends to become more extreme - Groupthink: the tendency for group members to suspend critical thinking because they are striving to seek agreements - Social comparison: involves comparing our beliefs, feelings, and behaviours to those of other people - Mere exposure effect: repeated exposure to a stimulus typically increases our liking for it - Matching effect: we are most likely to have a dating partner or spouse whose level of physical attractiveness is similar to our own - Social structure theory: proposes that men and women display different mating preferences because society directs them into different social roles - Social penetration theory: relationships progress as interactions between people become broader, involving more areas of their lives, and deeper, involving more intimate and personally meaningful lives - Social exchange theory: the course of a relationship is governed by rewards and costs that the partners experience - Passionate love: intense emotion, arousal, and yearning for the partner - Companionate love: affection, deep caring about the partner’s well-being, and a commitment to “being there” for the other - Triangular theory of love: o intimacy (closeness, sharing, and valuing one’s partner) o commitment (the decision to remain in the relationship) o passion (feelings of romance, physical attraction, and sexual desire) - Consummate love: ultimate form of love between people; when intimacy, passion, and commitment are all present - Cognitive-arousal model: the passionate component of love has interacting cognitive and physiological components - Transfer of excitation: arousal due to one source is perceived (misattributed) as being due to another source o Ex. Thinking you’re “falling in love” after you’ve just exercised - Prejudice: refers to a negative attitude toward people based on their membership in a group - Discrimination: refers to overt behaviour (treating people unfairly based on the group to which they belong) - In-group favouritism: a tendency to favour in-group members and attribute more positive qualities to “us” rather than to “them” - Out-group derogation: a tendency to attribute more negative qualities to “them” than to “us” - Out-group homogeneity bias: view members of out-groups as being more similar to one another than are members of in-groups (“they are all alike”; “we are all diverse”) - Realistic conflict theory: competition for limited resources fosters prejudice - Social identity theory: prejudice stems from a need to enhance our self-esteem - Stereotype threat: stereotypes create a fear and self-consciousness among stereotyped group members that they will “live up” to other people’s stereotypes - Equal status contract: prejudice between people is most likely to be reduced when they engage in sustained close contact, have equal status, work to achieve a common goal that requires cooperation, and are supported by broader social norms - Norm of reciprocity: states that we should reciprocate when others treat us kindly - Norm of social responsibility: states that people should help others and contribute to the welfare of society - Altruism: the desire to aid another without concern for oneself - Empathy-altruism hypothesis: altruism does exist, and it is produced by empathy (the ability to put oneself in the place of another and to share what that person is experiencing) - Negative state relief model: high empathy causes us to feel distress when we learn of others’ suffering, so by helping them we reduce our own person distress - Diffusion of responsibility: if others are around, then you feel responsibility isn’t just up to you o Ex. “If I don’t help, someone else will.” - Self-efficacy: confidence - Bystander apathy: the presence of multiple bystanders inhibits each person’s tendency to help - Just world hypothesis: people want to view the world as fair, therefore they perceive that people get what they deserve and deserve what they get - Frustration-aggression hypothesis: states that frustration inevitably leads to aggression and all aggression is the result of frustration - Psychological Factors in Aggression: o Attribution of intentionality: if we perceive that someone’s negative behaviour toward us was intended or controllable, we are more likely to become angry and retaliate o Our ability to regulate our emotions o Our degree of empathy for someone influences how we react  Ex. When someone offends us and then apologizes, the likelihood that we will forgive her/him depends on how well we can understand his/her viewpoint - Catharsis: performing an act of aggression discharges energy and temporarily reduces our impulse to aggress Chapter 14 (5Qs): - Only modest stability is found from childhood personality to adult personality; consistency becomes greater as we enter adulthood - Personality: the distinctive and relatively enduring ways of thinking, feeling, and acting that characterize a person’s responses to life situations - Instinctual drives generate psychic energy, which powers the mind and constantly presses for either direct or indirect release. o For example: a buildup of energy from sexual drives might be discharged directly in the form of sexual activity, or indirectly through such diverse behaviours as sexual fantasies, farming, or painting. - Mental events may be conscious, preconscious, or unconscious o Conscious mind: consists of mental events that we are presently aware of o Preconscious events: contains memories, thoughts, feelings, and images that we are unaware of at the moment but that can be called into conscious awareness o Unconscious mind: wishes, feelings, and impulses that lie beyond our awareness.  Only when impulses from the unconscious are discharged some way, such as in dreams, slips of the tongue, or some disguised behaviour, does the unconscious reveal itself - Freud divided personality into three separate but interacting structures: id, ego, and superego o Id: exists totally within the unconscious mind  It is the innermost core of the personality; the only structure present at birth  The id has no direct contact with reality and functions in a totally irrational manner  The id operates according to the pleasure principle  Pleasure principle: it seeks immediate gratification or release, regardless of rational considerations  Its dictum: “Want…Take!” o Ego: functions primarily at a conscious level  Operates according to the reality principle  It tests reality to decide when and under what conditions the id can safely discharge its impulses and satisfy its needs o Superego: tries to block gratification permanently  Moralistic goals take precedence over realistic ones, regardless of the potential cost to the individual - The ego must achieve compromise between the demands of the id, the constraints of the superego, and the demands of reality. - Psychoanalytic Ego Defence Mechanisms: o Repression: repressed thoughts and wishes remain in the unconscious, striving for release, but they may be expressed indirectly, as in slips of the tongue or in dreams o Sublimation: completely masking the forbidden underlying impulse o Denial: a person refuses to acknowledge anxiety-arousing aspects of the environment o Displacement: an unacceptable or dangerous impulse is repressed, then directed at a safer substitute target o Intellectualization: the emotion connected with an upsetting event is repressed, and the situation is dealt with as an intellectually interesting event o Projection: an unacceptable impulse is repressed, then attributed/projected (on)to other people o Rationalization: a person constructs a false but plausible explanation or excuse for an anxiety- arousing behaviour or event that has already occurred o Reaction formation: an anxiety-arousing impulse is repressed, and its psychic energy finds release in an exaggerated expression of the opposite behaviour - Children pass through series of psychosexual stages during which the id’s pleasure-seeking tendencies are focused on specific pleasure-sensitive areas of the body called erogenous zones - Potential deprivations or overindulgences can arise during any of these stages, resulting in fixation, a state of arrested psychosexual development in which instincts are focused on a particular psychic theme - Freud’s Stages of Psychosexual Development: o Oral (0-2yrs); Mouth o Anal (2-3yrs); Anus o Phallic (4-6yrs); Genitals – Oedipus/Electra complex o Latency (7-puberty); Nothing o Genital (puberty on); Genitals - Neoanalysts: psychoanalysts who disagree with certain aspects of Freud’s thinking and developed their own theories - Social interest: the desire to advance the welfare of others - Personal unconscious: based on their life experiences - Collective unconscious: consists of memories accumulated throughout the entire history of the human race o These memories are represented by archetypes: inherited tendencies to interpret experience in certain ways - Object relations: focuses on the images or mental representations that people form of themselves and other people as a result of early experience with caregivers - Self-actualization: the total realization of one’s human potential - Self: an organized, consistent set of perceptions and beliefs about oneself - Self-consistency: an absence of conflict among self-perceptions - Congruence: consistency between self-perceptions and experience - Any experience we have that is inconsistent with our self-concept, including our perceptions of our own behaviour, e
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