PSYC 2310 Chapter Notes -Syphilis, Motivational Interviewing, Hypochondriasis

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Psychology 1200 Textbook Study Notes
Chapters 1, 2, 10, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, Appendix
Chapter 1 (3Qs):
- Psychology: the scientific study of behaviour and the factors that influence it
- Behaviour: directly observable activity; mental processes (thinking, motivation)
- Basic Research: the quest for knowledge purely for its own sake
- Applied Research: designed to solve specific practical problems
- Goals of Psychology
o Describe, Explain and Understand, Predict, Influence or Control
- Robbers Cave to the Jigsaw Program
o Psychologists at a camp studied boys in Robbers Cave, Oklahoma
The boys were divided into two groups and called themselves the Eagles and the
Rattlers
They lived in different cabins but did activities together and got along well until the
experimenters began to pit them against one another in a series of competitive contests
Eventually, strong hostility grew between the two groups and discrimination took place
(people would not be friends with someone of the other group)
The hostility was reduced by placing the children in situations where they had to work
together to accomplish a certain task
o Jigsaw program is based on the Robbers Cave experiment
It is a program based on making children have to work together to attain a common goal
Ex. Each person in the group is given certain information that they need to know; need
to combine knowledge in order to succeed
- Charles Whitman = perfectly normal guy, then kills his wife and mother. Then kills a whole bunch of
people at his university. Then kills himself. To explain this, psychologists look at three big factors:
biological, psychological, and environmental.
- Perspectives: vantage points for analyzing behaviour and its biological, psychological, and environmental
causes.
o Six major perspectives
Biological Perspective: focuses on the physical side of the human nature. Brain and
genes.
Mind-body dualism: the belief that the mind is a spiritual entity not subject to
the physical laws that govern the body
Monism: the “mind” is not a spiritual entity. Mind and body are one.
Charles Darwin’s evolutionary theory: Natural selection (any inheritable
characteristic that increases the likelihood of survival will be maintained
because individuals having the characteristics will be more likely to survive
and reproduce)
Evolutionary psychology: an emerging discipline that focuses on the role of
evolution in the development of behaviour and mental mechanisms
Sociobiology: complex social behaviours are built into the human species as
products of evolution
Behaviour genetics: the study of how behavioural tendencies are influences by
genetic factors
Cognitive Perspective: views humans as information processors and problem solvers
whose actions are governed by thought and planning.
Structuralism: the analysis of the mind in terms of its basic elements
Introspection: “looking within
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Functionalism: psychology should study the functions (the whys) of
consciousness, rather than its structure
Gestalt psychology: how elements of experience are organized into wholes.
Believe the whole is greater than, and different from, the sum of its parts.
Insight: the sudden perception of a useful relationship or solution to a problem
(a kind of “Aha!” experience)
Artificial intelligence: develops computers models of complex human
thought, reasoning, and problem solving
Social Constructivism: what we consider “reality” is in large part our own
mental creation.
Piaget identified stages of development that unfold as children mature
Psychodynamic Perspective: searches for the causes of behaviour within the workings
of our personality, emphasizing the role of unconscious processes and unresolved
conflicts from the past
Hysteria: a psychological disorder in which physical symptoms such as
blindness, pain, or paralysis develop without any apparent organic cause
Repression: defence mechanism which protects us by keeping anxiety-arousing
impulses, feelings, and memories in the unconscious depths of the mind
Freud’s psychoanalytic theory fit into this perspective.
Behavioural Perspective: focuses on the role of the external environment in shaping
and governing our actions.
British empiricism: all ideas and knowledge are gained empirically (through the
senses)
Behaviourism: a school of thought that emphasizes environmental control of
behaviour through learning
Behaviour modification: powerful techniques of behaviour change
Cognitive behaviourism: an attempt to bridge the gap between the
behavioural and cognitive perspectives and to combine them
Humanistic Perspective: emphasize free will, innate tendencies toward growth, and the
attempt to find ultimate meaning in one’s existence
Self-actualization: the reaching of one’s individual potential
Terror-management theory: an innate desire for continued life combined with
the uniquely human awareness of the inevitability of death, creates an anxiety
called existential terror
Sociocultural Perspective: focuses on the manner in which culture is transmitted to its
members and on the similarities and differences that occur among people from
diverse cultures
Culture: refers to the enduring values, beliefs, behaviours, and traditions that
are shared by a large group of people and are passed on from one generation
to the next
Norms: rules that specify what is acceptable and expected behaviour for
members of that group
Individualism: an emphasis on personal goals and a self-identity based primarily
on one’s own attributes and achievements
Collectivism: individual goals are subordinated to those of the group, and
personal identity is defined largely by the ties that bind one to family and other
social groups
- Interaction: the presence or strength of one factor can influence the effects of other factors
- Experimental psychology: psychologists who seek to understand behaviour by doing research
- Applied psychology: psychologists who use the knowledge accumulated from the experimental
psychologists to help people
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Chapter 2 (6Qs):
- Experiments:
o Two main advantages: requires researchers to be extremely clear and precise
o Trains researchers to be skeptical and critical of their own and other’s work
- Experimental research:
o Advantage: cause-effect conclusions
o Disadvantage: artificial and too simple; may have ethical and/or practical issues
- Diffusion of responsibility: a psychological state in which each person feels decreased personal
responsibility for intervening
- Hypothesis: a tentative explanation or prediction about some phenomenon
- Theory: a set of formal statements that explains how and why certain events are related to one another
- A good theory has several important characteristics:
o It conforms to the law of parsimony: if two theories can explain and predict the same
phenomena equally well, the simpler theory is the preferred one.
- Variable: any characteristics that can differ
- Operational definition: defines a variable in terms of the specific procedures used to produce or measure
it
- Self-report measures: ask people to report on their own knowledge, beliefs, feelings, experiences, or
behaviour
- Social desirability bias: the tendency of participants to give an answer that gives a good impression rather
than one that reflects how they truly feel or behave
- Archival measures: already-existing records or documents
- Descriptive methods: involve recording observations or surveys
- Correlational methods: involve measuring the strength of an association between two or more events
- Experimental methods: involve manipulations to establish cause and effect relationships between two
or more events
- Descriptive research: seeks to identify how humans and other animals behave, particularly in natural
settings
- Descriptive statistics: used to organize raw data into meaningful descriptions
- Inferential statistics: used to determine if your findings are genuine and not due to chance, and likely to be
found in the population as a whole
- Case Study: an in-depth analysis of an individual, group, or event.
- Population: consists of all the individuals about whom we are interested in drawing a conclusion
- Sample: a subset of individuals drawn from the larger population of interest
- Representative sample: one that reflects the important characteristics of the population
- Random sampling: used to select individuals in each subgroup (each have an equal chance of being
chosen)
- Random assignment: each person in your study has an equal chance of going into either of your two
groups
- Correlational research: measuring variables, not manipulating them
- Correlation coefficient: a statistic that indicates the direction and strength of the association between two
variables
- Correlational research:
o Advantages: useful for studying topics that can’t be studied using experimental methods
o Disadvantages: does not allow cause-effect conclusions
- Three different types of correlational research:
o Naturalistic observation; case studies; questionnaires
- Independent variable: refers to the factor that is manipulated
- Dependent variable: the factor that is measured; may be influenced by the independent variable
- Experimental group: the group that received a treatment of the independent variable
- Control group: not exposed to the treatment; provides a standard
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Document Summary

Chapters 1, 2, 10, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, appendix. Psychology: the scientific study of behaviour and the factors that influence it. Behaviour: directly observable activity; mental processes (thinking, motivation) Basic research: the quest for knowledge purely for its own sake. Applied research: designed to solve specific practical problems. Goals of psychology: describe, explain and understand, predict, influence or control. Robbers cave to the jigsaw program: psychologists at a camp studied boys in robbers cave, oklahoma. The boys were divided into two groups and called themselves the eagles and the. They lived in different cabins but did activities together and got along well until the experimenters began to pit them against one another in a series of competitive contests. Eventually, strong hostility grew between the two groups and discrimination took place (people would not be friends with someone of the other group)

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