Textbook Notes (363,041)
Canada (158,169)
Psychology (3,263)
PSYC 2310 (255)

PSYC 2310 Chater 3 notes.docx

7 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Guelph
PSYC 2310
Jeffrey Yen

Chapter 3 – The Self: Self-Perception and Self-Presentation Self-concept – an individual’s overall beliefs about his or her own attributes; example: funny, athletic, outgoing, etc.  Self-concept is one aspect of the self; your knowledge about who you are (Known or the Me).  The second aspect is self-awareness; your act of thinking about yourself. (Knower or the I).  Your self-concept has an impact on how you feel about yourself. If your overall evaluation of your attributes is positive, you’ll have high self-esteem, just as your self- esteem will be lower if you view your attributes less favourably. Self- awareness – a state of being aware of oneself as an object of one’s thoughts.  When people are forced into being self-aware they become motivated to change their behaviour either to match personal standards or to escape their self-awareness. FUNCTIONS OF SELF Self as an Interpersonal Tool In order for us to have a social life and have relationships with others around us, we need to have a relatively stable identity. Self as Decision Maker Decisions reflect our goals and values. Example: if you want to become a psychologist, it is important for you to perform well in your classes which mean completing assignments and studying for exams. Self as a Regulatory System The self has to maintain itself despite the individual’s diverse and sometimes contradictory goals. Example: while on a diet you struggle to control to eat something bad for you. Different types of the brain make different types of decisions:  People who were low in self-concept clarity were more likely to be neurotic and have low self esteem, and were less likely to be aware of their internal states.  Different parts of the brain are responsible for making decisions about immediate rewards versus delayed rewards.  Self-concept clarity is defined as the extent to which knowledge about the self is clearly or consistently defined. The Hazards of Introspection  Introspection is actually not a very effective way of gaining insight into our true attitudes.  People who analyze the reasons why they have a particular attitude, show a lower correlation between their attitudes and their behaviour (their attitudes aren’t very good at predicting their actual behaviour).  Our feelings are a better predictor of our true preferences and even our future behaviour. Overestimation of the Impact of Events Affective forecasting – the process of predicting the impact of both positive and negative events on mood.  People are inaccurate in their affective forecasting, meaning that they greatly overestimate the impact that both positive and negative events will have on their mood.  People expect to feel much greater regret than they actually do, which could lead us to make faulty decisions. The Problem if Self-Discrepancy Self-discrepancy theory – the theory that our self-concept is influenced by the gap between how we actually see ourselves and how we want to see ourselves. Example: if you see yourself as a consistent C-level student but come from an academically successful family and you aspire to be an intellectual like your parents and siblings, you may experience a large gap between your actual and ideal selves and therefore feel very negative about yourself. Self-awareness theory – when people focus on their behaviour, they are motivated to either change their behaviour (so their attitudes and behaviour are in line) or escape from self- awareness (to avoid noticing this contradiction). Self-Perception Theory  We look to our own behaviour to determine our attitudes and beliefs in just the same way that we may examine other people’s behaviour to see what they’re like.  Example: if you regularly choose the chocolate cake from a dessert tray, you assume that you must like chocolate.  Self-perception theory explains why asking people to perform a behaviour, especially with little pressure, can lead them to experience a change in self-concept. Gender differences in self-definition:  When information is available about one’s ability on a specific task, men and women are similar in estimating their ability. However, when this information is missing, men tend to estimate their abilities at a significantly higher level than women do.  Studies thus seem to indicate that men and women differ in their self-confidence about their ability to succeed in a task (feminine tasks versus masculine tasks). Facial feedback hypothesis – the hypothesis that changes in facial expression can lead to changes in emotion.  Changes in emotion that are caused by facial (and body) feedback are simply a result of self-perception. People who are smiling may perceive themselves as happy and therefore feel happy. INTERPRETING YOUR MOTIVATION  If you believe that you are engaging in a given activity based on intrinsic motivation, you see your behaviour as motivated by internal factions, such as the interest you have in the task.  People who work on a task for extrinsic reasons report feeling concerned with recognition, competition, and tangible rewards or benefits. The Dangers of Overjustification Overjustification – the phenomenon in which receiving external rewards for a given behaviour can undermine the intrinsic motivation for engaging in the behaviour.  Sometimes activities that should be intrinsically motivating, such as reading books, become less enjoyable once external motivations for such behaviours are provided. o Example: asking students to voluntarily participate in volunteering compared to forcing students to volunteer – they are less interested in volunteering in the future. Social Comparison Theory  The theory that people evaluate their own abilities and attributes by comparing themselves to other people.  Example: if you receive an 83 on an exam, you want to know how others did so you can understand how your performance compares. If the class average was 73, you feel good about yourself compared to if it was 93.  Especially likely in situations of uncertainty.  Explains why we think about ourselves in very different ways depending on the nature of the comparison we’re making and its significance to us. False uniqueness effect – we see our own desirable behaviour as less common than is actually the case. Misremembering  The tendency to remember things in a self-serving way can also lead us to see change over time, even when no change has occurred. o Example: people doing poorly in a class and get a tutor often report that their scores have improved, and they attribute this improvement to the tutor. Seeing our Views as Shared by Others False consensus effect – the tendency to overestimate the extent to which other people share our opinions, attitudes, and behaviours.  We make this mistake because we usually surround ourselves with people who share our beliefs.  People also see their own skills and abilities as relatively normative, meaning similar to that
More Less

Related notes for PSYC 2310

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.