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Chapter 7

PSYC 2310 Chapter 7 Notes.docx

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PSYC 2310
Jeffrey Yen

Chapter 7 – Persuasion Persuasion: communications that are designed to influence people’s attitudes Routes to persuasion Elaboration likelihood model (ELM): people focus on different aspects of persuasive message as a function of their involvement in message content. Central/systematic route: person thinks carefully about a communication message and is influenced by strength of arguments Peripheral or heuristic route: a person does not think carefully about a communication message and influenced by superficial characteristics Message  high motivation  central route processing  persuasion Message  low motivation  peripheral route processing  persuasion Factors influencing type of processing Ability to focus  Distracted = limited ability to focus, difficult to concentrate on central messages that require greater processing, so may rely on peripheral cues (Petty, Wells, Brock)  People accept automatically info received (Gilbert)  person interrupted immediately after hearing some info, more likely to accept info as true because lack of motivation and opportunity to engage in careful processing  Petty  distracted, therefore accepted weak and strong arguments. Didn’t have chance to process what they heard Motivation to focus  No motivation to focus on processing central message if uninvolved or uninterested in message (Chaiken)  No motivation, you are likely to rely on peripheral cues (length of message, source, description and speed of delivery)  Familiarity of phrases influences persuasion (Howard) o Asked students to read 2 phrases and to rate agreement with phrase o People low in involvement persuaded with familiar phrases (relied on peripheral cues) o High involvement were equally persuaded by both phrases (weighed meanings of both phrases which were identical)  Students listening to speaker on benefits of mandatory exams (Petty) o Three variables: expertise of speaker, message strength, personal involvement o Those not involved  primary factor was expertise of speaker (peripheral) o More positive about exams when delivered by professor o High involved  strength of argument was major predictor of attitude (central) Which route is more effective?  Both are effective  Highly personal messages motivate us to pay attention as long as there is no distraction (centrally)  Low personal relevance are process peripherally  Same cue processed in different ways  Attitude change based in central route processing is longer lasting, more resistant to future persuasion efforts What factors influence persuasion? Source  Who delivers the message  Source of persuasions refers to person who delivers the message  Source’s attractiveness, similarity and credibility can influence how persuasive people find the message Attractiveness  More persuasive than unattractive and less likeable ones  Assume attractive people buy a certain car, or soda, etc.  become more attractive by engaging in similar behaviour  Eagly & Chaiken o Hired unattractive and attractive people to survey students o Attractive people were more successful in getting student’s signatures  Likeable people more persuasive in videos, while unlikeable people more persuasive in written Similarity  Good friend is more similar to you and therefore more persuasive  Have more in common with friend, believe what they say  Mackie o Students attitudes changed in direction of message they read when speech delivered by student at their school  Messages delivered by same sources can be persuasive even if message delivered feels coercive  Silvia o Essay has negative attitude o Students who believed shared first name and birthdate with author of essay, rate agreement with essay high o Did not have same name, rated essay lower Credibility  Sources who appear credible are more persuasive than those who lack it  Convinced by sources that we believe are trustworthy  People who argue unexpected positions are especially persuasive because they are seen as highly credible  Message against participants expectations seen as more factually based than on expected side, leading to greater attitude change  When people have just received a persuasive message from a source with low credibility, are more persuaded by message from moderately credible source than if they had first received message from a source with high credibility  We evaluate credibility of source also with credible references  Repeated exposure to persuasive message leads to individuals to attribute message to a more credible source.  Fragale & Heath o Exposed participants to statement regarding food legend 5 times and others 2 times  Sleeper effect: noncredible sources can become more persuasive over time  Over time people remember the message but no the speaker Content of message Length  Often think long messages are more persuasive than short, link between persuasion and length is complex  Long message are more effective if message is strong and processed centrally, less effective if weak and processed peripherally  Long message w/ weak message can have less impact than short strong messages Discrepancy  Messages too discrepant from people’s attitudes are likely to be ignored, and messages that are right at people’s current attitudes aren’t effective in changing attitudes  Attitudes tend to be more extreme over time because people gather support for own beliefs and ignore disconfirming evidence  Lord o Those in favour of capital punishment now strongly supported it, while those who were somewhat against it were now more strongly opposed to it  People tend to see evidence that supports their view as quite strong and evidence that opposes their view as quite weak Audience Demographic effect  People in late adolescent and early adulthood are most influenced by persuasive message (may explain why this demographic group is coveted by TV execs)  College students have less stable attitudes, and tendency to comply with authority  Adults are more responsive to messages that have meaningful goals, younger adults have no preference  Gender o Women more easily persuaded than men o Due to social roles: men focused on demonstrating independence from other, women focused on fostering cooperation with others o Women influenced by face-to-face persuasion o Men don’t show a difference in type of persuasion Personality  Self-monitoring (tendency to change one’s attitudes and behaviour to fit situation) on responsiv
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