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PSYC 2310 (266)
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Chapter 10

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PSYC 2310
Saba Safdar

Social Psychology Chapter 10 (pg. 320-332) Intergroup Relations Intergroup relations: way in which people in groups perceive, think about, feel about, and act toward people in other groups How Do Different Theories Explain Intergroup Relations? (How do you explain crowd behaviour?) Early Research and Theories of Crowd Behaviour - Gustav Le Bon: riots in France; when people become part of a crowd they “descend several rungs on the ladder of civilization” - 3 Characteristics o Anonymity: less responsible for actions o Suggestibility: social constraints loosened; copy others acting instinctively o Contagion: irrationality and violence contagious; may sweep through crowd - People “go mad” in crowds - Crowds posses groupmind - Have to be controlled and managed - Allport: rejected groupmind; thinks individuals simply exaggerate what they would normally do; crowds allow people to be bad Deindividuation - Sherif, Asch, Zimbardo: crowds cannot be understood by studying individuals - Deindividuation: when in large groups, people are less likely to follow rules of behaviour= roots in anonymity; when one loses awareness of oneself as distinct individual - Anonymity: o Each individual less distinguishable o Enhanced when people wear uniforms o Social circumstance precursor to deindividuation o Zimbardo Prison Experiment  Participants: male, no history of crime or drug abuse; healthy and intelligent  Two groups: 9 guards and 9 prisoners: random sampling  All instructions were to increase deindividuation (prisoners blindfolded, handcuffed at home; guards wore uniform)  Guards became abusive, prisoners became passive, depressed  Participants identified with roles given  Study lasted 6 days instead of 2 weeks o Zimbardo studied University girls: electric shocks given to others  Girls who wore white coats and hoods(similar to KKK), gave longer shocks than those who wore their own clothes and had a large nametag  Anonymity of white clothing gave way to aggression o Cues in social environment important in increasing/decreasing aggressive behaviour o Johnson and Downing (1979): shock when student made error  4 conditions:  Individuation: nametag  Deindividuation: no identifying information  Prosocial cue: white coat “old nurse uniform”  Antisocial: something that looked similar to KKK  Nurse= less shocks, KKK= more shocks  Deindividuation+ Nurse= less shocks  When anonymous, one becomes responsive to situational cues - Accountability o Lack of accountability contr
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