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Chapter 12

PSYC 2310 Chapter 12 Notes.docx

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PSYC 2310
Jeffrey Yen

Chapter 12 PreviewEmotional or hostile aggression Aggression in which one inflicts harm for its own sake on another Eg A jealous lover lashing out or soccer fans having a brawl in the stands after a gameInstrumental aggression aggression in which one inflicts harm in order to obtain something of value Eg Killing other in selfdefence or to gain money or attention Aggression physical or verbal behaviour that is intended to harm another individual who is motivated to avoid such treatment 1 Aggression is a behaviour that harms others 2 Harming others is intentional3 The victim of the aggressive behaviour is motivated to avoid the harmthe harm is unwanted How do Biological Factors Influence AggressionMen who had committed violent crimes such as rape and assault in prison had higher testosterone levels than men who had committed property crimes such as burglary and theftSimilarly men with higher testosterone levels violated more rules while in prison Instinct and Evolutionary TheoriesFreud believed that people possess a powerful death wish or drive which in order to cope with it people need to channel this energy either towards others in engaging in aggression against people or inward and engage in selfdestructive behaviourCatharsis release of suppressed energy or emotion o This relates to the idea that we need to release builtup tension by blow off some steam Get it off your chest o But science shows us that this may actually increase aggression as higher levels of initial aggressive behaviour can lead to increasing levels of aggression later which can act as a rewardLorenz came up with the instinct theory of aggression which is a theory that describes aggression as innate biological drive as only aggressive animals will survive o These theories suggest while in almost all societies men are more aggressive than women and as a result more violence is done towards women
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