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PSYC 2310 (266)
Saba Safdar (156)
Chapter 4

Chapter 4

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 2310
Professor
Saba Safdar
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter 4: Social Perception Social Perception: how people make impressions and inferences about other people (not always accurate and often ignores situation context) How we think about the cause of other people’s actions. (Summary chart pg114) -listing positive causes has led to better conflict resolution. -Heider’s Theory of Naïve Psychology: people use cause and effect analysis to understand their world and other people’s behavior. -ExternalAttributions: seeing the cause as situational -InternalAttributions: seeing the cause as personal factors (ability, effort, personality) -Jones and Davis’s Theory of Correspondent Inference: we see people’s behavior as caused by their traits when done freely; -Do they have a choice in the action? -Is the behavior expected based on the social role or circumstance? -What are the intended effects or consequences (reward/punishment)? -Kelley’s Covariation Theory: people determine cause based on factors present when behavior occurs, and absent when it does not. -Consensus: do other people behave similarly? Then it is situational. -Distincitiveness: how does this person usually act in this situation? If it’s the same then dispositional cause. If they usually act different then situational cause. -Consistency: is their behavior the same over time and situations? If yes, then dispositional cause. -Dispositional cause if low consensus and distinctiveness, and high consistency. -Situational Cause if all three are high -Don’t know if low consistency in attitude or behavior -Weiner’s Attribution Theory: people attribute their successes and failures in terms of three dimensions; (eight outcomes, chart pg112) -Locus (location of cause: internal or external) -Stability (whether the cause stays the same) -Controllability (whether the person can control the cause) -People want to maintain a postive self-image and tend to attribute failures to external causes, and success to internal causes. -Repeated internal, stable, global attributions might be associated with depression -Intergroup Attribution: making attributions based on group membership. -ethnocentrism: attributing desirable traits to your own group and negative traits to other’s groups. What type of errors do we make in thinking about others? (pg115) -FundamentalAttribution Error/ Correspondence Bias: the tendency to overestimate the role of personal causes and underestimate the role of situational causes when explaining behavior. -Actor-Observer Effect: people tend to see other’s behavior as caused by dispositional factors but their own as caused by external. -partly because we can’t see in other’s heads, so don’t know what they are thinking. -a motivational factor is that it “won’t happen to me because I am doing the right thing.” This is the ‘belief in a just world’phenomenon. Why
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