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Chapter 9

Chapter 9- Feb. 8th.docx

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PSYC 2310

Chapter 9- Group Processes Feb. 8 2014 How do groups influence behaviour? - Groups influence behaviour through: • Social facilitation, 3 explanations for this effect o Distraction o Evaluation apprehension o Mere presence - Influences of social loafing: • Identifiable contributions o Whether people believe that their own contribution will be recognized • Contributions having impact o Whether you believe your efforts will have an impact on the group’s performance- in other words- if you work harder, better performance will result • Task importance o People are also motivated to work hard on a group task if the task is highly important to them - Group cohesions • The morale, team spirit, and solidarity of the members of the group • Essential characteristic that transforms a collection of individual people into members of a group • High cohesive groups perform better than less cohesive ones - Link between cohesion and group performance - Most restaurants impose a mandatory tip on groups of five or more How do intragroup processes influence decision-making? - Group polarization, factors that contribute to it: • Hearing a large number of persuasive arguments • Learning groups norms - Factors leading to group think: • Overestimating the group’s invulnerability and morality • Closed-mindedness • Pressure toward uniformity How do leaders guide and motivate the group? - Three models of leadership: • The trait of “great person” model o Describes good leaders as emerging based on specific personality traits, such as intelligence, dominance, and extroversions • Transformational versus transactional leadership o Transactional leaders reward desireable behaviours by group members and act once mistake or problems occur o Transformation leaders foster trust among group members, build identification with and excitement about higher-level group goals, and examine new approaches for problem-solving • Contingency model o Emphasizes the importance of having a match between the leader’s specific traits and the demands of a particular situation - People who are oriented toward both achievement and interpersonal dynamics are the most effective leaders How do groups handle social dilemmas? - The needs of the individual conflict with the need of the group - Types of social dilemmas: • Common resource dilemma o Aresource, such as water, land, natural fish stocks, or oil, can be reduce- and even eliminated- by overuse o Each
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