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Chapter 10

Chapter 10- Feb. 15th.docx

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PSYC 2310

Chapter 10- Intergroup Relations Feb. 15 2014 What factors influence the behaviour of people in a crowd? - Le Bon argued that people “go mad” in crowds, that crowd behaviour is destructive, pathological and should be controlled - McDougall characterized crowds as violent, impulsive, suggestible, and emotional - Three characteristics that are associated with crowds: 1. Anonymity • People in a crowd become anonymous and are therefore less responsible for their actions 2. Suggestibility • When people’s social constraints are loosened, they become more suggestible • When one or a few individuals start to act on their aggressive impulses others copy due to their heightened suggestibility, giving in to their own urges to act unreasonably and aggressively 3. Contagion • The irrationality and acts of violence are contagious and sweep through the crowd - According to the theory of deindividuation, when people are in large groups, they are less likely to follow normal rules of behaviour • This is due to: o Decreased self-awareness o Anonymity o Lack of accountability How does social identity theory contribute to understanding group relations? - According to social identity theory, people have two identities: • Individual identities • Social identities o Based on group membership o When people become a member of a group, the group membership becomes salient, and it’s their group goal and group identity that regulates their behaviour - Derogating the outgroup can make you feel better both about your group and yourself What factors lead to intergroup conflicts? - Rosabeth Moss Kanter work with gender ration group dynamics identified four types of proportions for group composition: 1. Uniform group o All one gender 2. Skewed groups o Predominantly one gender with a few token members of the opposite gender 3. Tilted groups o Amajority of one genders versus a minority of the other 4. Balanced groups o Equitable numbers of both men and women - Three perceptual phenomena that influenced group dynamics: 1. Visibility 2. Polarization o Tendency for the dominant group to notice their own commonalities with the others of their group 3. Assimilation o Process of perceiving or misperceiving the token characterizations of one group to be more like a category characterization than they actually are - Conflicts between groups happen when: • People are competing for resources o Realistic conflict theory • When they perceive that their circumstances are deteriorating o Relative deprivation theory - When students are told that they’ll have a much harder time finding jobs in the future they’re more likely to hold negative attitudes toward immigrants than students who are told that finding jobs is going to be much easier How can we reduce intergroup conflict? - Several approaches that lead to reductions in intergroup conflict:
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