Chapter 13- Altruism and Prosocial Behaviour March 10 2014
How do personal factors influence helping?
- Three factors that explain why people help those in need:
• Evolutionary factors
- Cueing people with religious words can increase prosocial behaviour
How do situational factors influence helping?
- Several different situational factors that influence helping
- Arousal/cost-reward model
• Describes helping as the costs and benefits of providing that help
- The impact of mood, modeling, and environmental factors on prosocial behaviour
- The large number of people who watched Kitty Genovese’s attack partially
explains why she didn’t receive help
Does pure altruism exist?
- Two competing views on whether altruism exists
• Empathy-altruism model
o Describes helping as motivated, at least at times, by true feelings
of empathy for a person in need
• Egoistic model
o Describes helping as emerging from individual’s own selfish
- Interpersonal attraction motives drive volunteerism with HIV patients for
heterosexual people, and empathy based motives drive such volunteerism for
Who gets help when they are in need?
- Factors that impact whether people get help when they’re in need:
• Person factors (such as gender, age, attractiveness, personality)
• Social norms (such as reciprocity, social responsibility)
• Relationship factors (such as similarity and friendship)
- Women are more likely to get help than men are
How does culture influence helping?
- Culture impacts prosocial behaviour, including:
• Frequency of helping
• Motivations for helping
• Factors that increase helping
- People in India are as willing to donate bone marrow to a stranger as to a family
member, but people in the US are much more willing to donate to a family
member than to a stranger
Altruism- helping without expectation of person gain Arousal/cost-reward model-