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Chapter 11

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PSYC 2310

Chapter 11- Stereotype, Prejudice, and Discrimination March 1 2014 What factors contribute to stereotyping and prejudice? - Social psycholgcal factors that contribute to stereotyping and prejudice: • Social leraning from parents and peers • Social categorization • Cognitive biases o Illusory correlation o Ultimate attribution error o Contrast effect o Perceptual confirmation o Confirmation bias - Discriminating against another person after you’ve received negative feedback about your intelligence can make you feel better - Explicit self esteem • Self-esteem that one has expressed about oneself - Implicit self esteem • One’s evaluation of oneself that may exist largely outside of one’s awareness What are the consequences of stereotyping, prejudice and discrimination? - Stereotypes consist of two basic dimension that are associated with groups differently depending on their social status: • Competence • Warmth - Negative consequences of being stereotyped: • Bahavioural confirmation or self-fulfilling prophecy • Stereotype threat • Reduced psychological well-being • Reverse discrimination • Hazards of positive stereotypes - Women who watch gender-stereotypic commercials underperform on a math test Is stereotyping inevitable? - Stereotypes are inevitable because such stereotypes are activated automatically and are hard to suppress - Disconfirming evidence is ignored - Although blatant prejudice is rare, subtle discrimination persists - Both black and white participants correctly shot an armed target more quickly if the target was black than white, and refrained from shooting an unarmed target more quickly if the target was white than black How can social and cognitive interventions help overcome prejudice? - Stereotypes can be overcome by: • Providing training and education • Being motivated to avoid using stereotypes - People who have egalitarian motives act more positively toward a homosexual person than those without such motives How does culture relate to prejudice and stereotypes? - The relation of culture to prejudice and stereotypes: • The reliance on cognitive biases, such as the ultimate attribution error and in-group favouratism, across different cultures • The prevalence of different stereotypes in different cultures, specifically the prevalence of fat bias and sexism - Older hearing americans pef
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