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Psychology (3,337)
PSYC 2310 (266)
Saba Safdar (156)
Chapter 1

Textbook- Chap. 1, 3, 4, 6.pdf

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PSYC 2310
Saba Safdar

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PSYC*2310▯ CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCING SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY▯ ▯ What is Social Psychology?▯ - social psychology: understanding people’s connections with each other; how we are influenced▯ Using the Scientific Method▯ - commitment to collecting accurate and error-free information, objectivity, and collecting data free of bias ▯ - scientific method: research method for investigating phenomena, and acquiring knowledge ▯ ▯ How We Think About Ourselves▯ - our views of ourselves depend on our sociocultural environment ▯ - self-perception, how we see ourselves, how we think about ourselves▯ - self-presentation, how we present our ideas about ourselves to other people▯ ▯ How We Think, Feel, and Act in the Social World▯ - social perception: how people form impressions and make inferences about other people▯ - social cognition: describes how we think about people and the world▯ - social influence: impact of other people’s attitudes and behaviour on our thoughts, feelings, - and behaviour ▯ but what they imagine people think or do▯r influenced not only by what other people think/do, - examines the impact of events on our attitudes and behaviours ▯ ▯ How Our Attitudes and Behaviour Shape the Social World▯ - self-fulfilling prophecy: people’s expectations about someone else’s traits influence how they act toward that person▯ ▯ How Has Social Psychology Evolved Over Time?▯ - early research influenced by behaviours, Gestalt psychology, and historical events▯ - deeply rooted in the intellectual and cultural environment of North American societies▯ ▯ Behaviourism▯ - impact of positive and negative events on behaviour ▯ ▯ -eexamine the influence of people’s perceptions of objects and events▯ - emphasize the importance of looking at the whole object, and how it appeared in people’s minds▯ - how people interpret their surroundings▯ ▯ Is Social Psychology Really Just Common Sense?▯ - inherent connection between social psychological theories and application to the real world is one of its greatest strengths▯ ▯ “The I Knew it All Along’ Problem▯ - hindsight bias: refers to people’s tendency to believe, once they’ve learned the outcome of something, that the particular outcome was obvious ▯ ▯ Emphasis on Critical Thinking▯ - focus on scientific method in social psychology: carefully and critically examine research findings presented in books and media ▯ ▯ How is Social Psychology Connected to Other Fields?▯ ▯ Links to Sub-Disciplines in Psychology▯ - social psychology linked to sub-disciplines: personality psychology, clinical psychology, and cognitive psychology▯ - personality psychology:▯ - role of individual differences ▯ - emphasizes how people’s individual differences influence their attitudes, thoughts, behaviour▯ - personality versus social psychologists:▯ - woman driving unsafely and aggressively▯ - personality: look at the personality: woman is careless and only thinks about herself▯ - social: look at the situation: woman is driving her sick child to the hospital: woman cares about her child ▯ - social support (friends, family) is helpful for coping with stressful situations ▯ - clinical psychology:▯ - understanding and treating people with psychological disorders (schizophrenia, depression, phobias)▯ - cognitive psychology:▯ - examines mental processes: thinking, remembering, learning, and reasoning▯ - social cognitive perspective: how we think about ourselves and the social world: focus on how we make judgements and decisions about social environment ▯ ▯ Links to Other Fields▯ - social psychology has links to other fields: philosophy, sociology, anthropology, and economics▯ - philosophy:▯ - psychology: derives from Greek words for study and spirit/soul▯ - contemporary philosophy: humanistic discipline that considers existential questions such as the meaning of life, ethics, human nature, and values ▯ - use analytical methods: logic▯ - social psychologists rely on empirical and scientific methods ▯ - sociology:▯ - examines general rules and theories about groups, how groups affect people’s attitudes and behaviour ▯ - social psychologists: how people behave in groups, how one’s culture can affect their behaviour ▯ - biology:▯ - examines structure, function, growth, origin, and evolution of living things ▯ - how species evolve over time, role of genes in influencing traits and attributes, how individuals grow and develop over time ▯ - evolutionary psychology: how biological factors influence people’s behaviour ▯ - social neuroscience: examines how factors in the social world influence activity on the brain, how neural processes influence attitudes and behaviour▯ - more social psychologists examine the interaction between brain activity and experiences in the social world ▯ - anthropology:▯ - examines the concept of culture, and the role of culture in influencing people’s attitudes and behaviour ▯ - social psychologists have recently taken an interest to studying other cultures outside of Western culture▯ - economics:▯ - studies how people make trade offs between scarce resources and how they choose between various alternatives▯ - examine why people make choices that do not maximize their well-being ▯ - behavioural economics: applies research on social, cognitive, and emotional biases to understand how people make economic decisions▯ ▯ How Does Social Psychology Apply Across Cultures and Subcultures?▯ - sociocultural perspective: describes people’s behaviour and mental processes as bring shaped by their social and/or cultural context▯ ▯ Individualistic versus Collectivistic Cultures▯ - individualistic cultures: cultures in which independence, self-reliance, autonomy, and personal identity are valued▯ - people describe the self as a unique set of attributes and traits, see people’s behaviour as emerging from these traits ▯ - people are told to follow their dreams, struggle against conformity, and focus on their own goals▯ - collectivistic cultures: focused on interdependence, harmony, cooperation, and social identity▯ - self is viewed as fundamentally integrated with one’s relationships and social groups, thoughts, feelings, and behaviours are also influenced by the group▯ - top 5: Guatemala, Ecuador, Panama, Venezuela, Columbia▯ ▯ Subculture and Other Social or Demographic Variables▯ - examine difference between people who live in the same country but within different subcultures within the country ▯ - our understanding of who we are depends in part of our memory of ourselves▯ ▯ Critiques of the Mainstream▯ - social constructionism:▯ - knowledge and reality are relative to the social circumstances and environment they came from▯ - reality is socially constructed and exists in a particular social situation, only understandable under the terms of that situation ▯ ▯ CHAPTER 3: THE SELF: SELF PERCEPTION AND SELF PRESENTATION▯ ▯ What Are the Self-Concept and Self Awareness?▯ - self-concept (known): overall beliefs about your own attributes, influence what we believe about the world, impact on how you feel about yourself, changes from childhood to adulthood▯ - self-esteem: how you feel about yourself▯ - self-awareness (knower): state of being aware of oneself as an object of one’s thoughts, when people are forced into being self-aware, they become motivated to change their behaviour, people who are self aware are more likely to match their behaviour to their own personal standards▯ ▯ Functions of the Self▯ - self as interpersonal tool:▯ - in order to have a social life and relationships with others, we need to have a stable sense of self/self-identity▯ - self as decision maker:▯ - make small/large decisions to set priorities, decisions reflect goals and values ▯ - self as regulatory system:▯ - self has to maintain itself despite individual’s diverse and contradictory goals and values ▯ - self regulation is an important part of the self: take care of interpersonal relationships, regulate one’s emotional state, and organize information related to particular tasks
 ▯ How Do Personal Factors Influence the Self-Concept and Self-Awareness?▯ ▯ Thinking About Your Thoughts▯ - introspection: thinking about thoughts or feelings, seen as influencing the self-concept▯ - the hazards of introspection:▯ - not a very effective way of gaining insight into our true attitudes ▯ - people who analyze why they have a certain attitude show a lower correlation between their attitudes and their behaviour: attitudes aren’t very good at predicting their behaviour ▯ - overestimation of the impact of the events:▯ - we believe various factors will influence our mood more than they actually do▯ - affective forecasting: greatly overestimate the impact that positive and negative events all have on our mood▯ ▯ Focusing on Self-Awareness▯ - the problem of self-discrepancy: ▯ - self discrepancy theory: our self concept is influenced by the gap between how we see ourselves (actual self) and how we want to see ourselves (ideal self)▯ - people who see a larger discrepancy between ideal and actual self feel worse about themselves than those who see a small discrepancy ▯ - the impact of self-awareness:▯ - self-awareness theory: people notice self-discrepancies only when they focus on their own behaviour ▯ - the limits of self-control:▯ - trying to suppress our thoughts can influence our behaviour▯ - escape from self-awareness: ▯ - efforts to escape can be relatively harmless/dangerous▯ ▯ Examining Your Behaviour▯ - our own behaviour influences how we see ourselves▯ - self-perception theory:▯ - we look at our behaviour to determine our attitudes and beliefs▯ - why asking people to perform a behaviour, especially with little pressure, can lead them to experience a change in self-concept ▯ - men and women differ in their self-confidence in their ability to complete a task, men more - confident in completing a “masculine” task, and vice versa for women▯ -acial feedback hypothesis:▯ - changes in facial expression can lead to changes in emotion ▯ changes in body position and activity can also affect a mood▯ ▯ Interpreting Your Motivation▯ - another factor that can influence how someone views themselves is the motivation they identify as being the reason for their behaviour ▯ - intrinsic motivation: desire to engage in an activity for its own sake, behaviour is motivated by internal factors, greater task involvement, enjoyment, curiosity, and interest ▯ - extrinsic motivation: desire to engage in an activity for external rewards/pressures, behaviour is motivated to fulfill obligations/avoid punishment, feeling concerned with recognition, competition, and tangible rewards/benefits▯ - the dangers of over-justification:▯ - non-traditional students (28+) higher on intrinsic motivation▯ - both traditional and non-traditional students: intrinsic motivation associated with positive emotions ▯ - over-justification: activities should be intrinsically motivating, but become less enjoyable after extrinsic motivations are provided▯ - example: volunteer hours in high school▯ - overcoming over-justification:▯ - providing rewards for finishing a task/showing a high quality of work can be beneficial▯ ▯ How Do Social Factors Influence the Self-Concept?▯ ▯ Social Comparison Theory▯ - people evaluate their own abilities and attributes by comparing themselves with others ▯ - social comparison likely in situations of uncertainty▯ - explains why we think of ourselves differently depending on the situation▯ ▯ How Do People Maintain a Positive Self-Concept?▯ - false uniqueness effect: we see our own desirable behaviour as less common than is actually the case▯ ▯ Self Serving Bias▯ - tendency to misremember events in a particular direction is one of the strategies people use to feel good about themselves▯ - misremembering:▯ - the tendency to remember things in a self-serving way can lead us to see change over time, even though no change has occurred ▯ - seeing our views as shared by others:▯ - another way people see themselves in a biased way is by assuming their views and behaviour are normative ▯ - false consensus effect: the tendency to overestimate the extent to which other people share our opinions, attitudes, and behaviours▯ - people see their skills and abilities as normative▯ - false uniqueness effect: tendency for people to see themselves as more likely to perform positive acts then others, see selves as less biased and more accurate than others ▯ ▯ Self Serving Beliefs▯ - unrealistic optimism: maintain positive self-concepts by seeing themselves as more likely than other people to experience goof events, less likely to experience bad events, why we see ourselves as “better than average” across multiple dimensions ▯ - having high perceived control:▯ - perceived control: we see uncontrollable events as at least partially under our control ▯ - making overconfident judgements:▯ - overconfident in predicting our own behaviour, tendency to be overconfident can mean that other people’s predictions about our behaviour are more accurate than our own▯ ▯ Self Serving Comparisons▯ - basking in reflected glory (BIRGing): maintain positive self-concept, strategic association with successful others, example: associating self with university after a football win ▯ - the benefits of downward comparison:▯ - people compare themselves to those who are worse off than themselves to make themselves feel better▯ - overcoming threatening comparisons:▯ - some situations where it is impossible to compare to others who are clearly better ▯ - “fighting back”: emphasize various advantages that the other person may have had that led them to outperform us, acknowledge that person as being extremely impressive in one domain, derogate their abilities in other domains to compensate ▯ ▯ Self-Serving Behaviour▯ - self-handicapping: creating obstacles to success so that potential failure can be blamed on these external factors as opposed to internal traits▯ - can lead to negative consequences: can lead to poorer performances, interpersonal relations (rated negatively by peers)▯ ▯ The Downside of Overly Positive Self-Views▯ - people who hold overly positive views of themselves can become more aggressive towards others, may have poor social skills, seen less positively by others▯ ▯ How Do People Present Themselves to Others?▯ - impression management strategies: people’s efforts to create positive impressions of themselves, self-promotion, ingratiation, and self-verification▯ ▯ Self Promotion▯ - focuses on making other people think that you are competent or good in some way▯ - drawbacks: competence speaks for itself: people trying to convince others that they are competent may seem less than those who “prove it” with their actions▯ - personal consequences: less likeable▯ ▯ -ngratiation▯ - trying to be liked▯ - problem: the more you need someone to like you, the more obvious the strategy is ▯ can lead people to dislike you (behaviour is insincere)▯ ▯ Self-Verification▯ - people typically want others perception of them to be consistent with their own perception of themselves▯ - self-monitors: those who are high in self-monitors readily and easily modify their behaviour in response to the situation and tend to maintain the same opinions and attitudes regardless of the situation▯ ▯ The Good-and Bad-News About Self-Presentation▯ - other people aren’t paying as much attention to us as we believe ▯ - spotlight effect: people overestimate the extent to which their appearance and behaviour is obvious to others▯ - concerns with self-presentation can lead people to engage in crazy and potentially dangerous activities▯ ▯ How Does Culture Influence Self?▯ - how culture impacts self-perception, self-presentation▯ ▯ Culture and Self-Concept▯ - “in Britain everything is permitted except that which is forbidden, in Germany everything is forbidden except that which is permitted, and in France everything is permitted even that which is forbidden.”▯ - the nature of self is a function of the culture that it develops in▯ - independent versus interdependent self-construal:▯ - individualistic societies: self viewed as an independent entity, unique characteristics▯ - independent self-construal: the self is autonomous and separate from others▯ - collectivistic societies: self is more connected to its social context and acts primarily as a response to others within the social context▯ - interdependent self-construal: the self is connected to others, behaviour is contingent on the opinion of others ▯ - factors influencing the self-concept:▯ - how people define themselves stems from how they think about and reflect on their own experiences in the world▯ - individualistic culture: strong sense of independent self, own values, attitudes, and characteristics▯ - collectivistic culture: the self is a reflection of those around them/relationships, family influences the self▯ ▯ Culture and Self-Perception and Self-Presentation▯ - individualistic societies: group members rate themselves as putting in the most work▯ - collectivistic societies: group members rate other members as putting in the most work▯ ▯ How People Experience Psychological Well-Being▯ - individualistic cultures: less concerned with consistency because they see the self as more of - a social product▯ - collectivistic cultures: consistency may represent righty and lack of flexibility▯ what is psychologically good and healthy is determined by one’s culture ▯ ▯ Sources of Self-Motivation▯ - individualistic culture: perform a task for extrinsic reasons (example: receiving a reward)▯ - collectivistic culture: perform a task with the focus being the group’s best interest’s followed by their own▯ ▯ Strategies for Maintaining a Positive Self-Concept▯ - self-serving attributions: the tendency to view oneself in a positive light ▯ - people from individualistic cultures more likely than those from collectivistic cultures to believe that they have some control over how objects work together, even when the objects are behaving in a completely random way (on a computer screen)▯ - use of false uniqueness bias:▯ - people’s tendency to see themselves as especially talented and better than others▯ - more common in individualistic cultures than collectivistic▯ - causes of cultural differences in self-enhancement:▯ - individualistic more likely to engage in self-enhancement (success is more relevant to their self-esteem)▯ - collectivistic are more likely to engage in self-criticism (failure is more relevant to their self- esteem)▯ ▯ ▯ CHAPTER 4: SOCIAL PERCEPTION▯ ▯ How Do We Think About Why Other People Do What They Do?▯ ▯ Heider’s Theory of Naïve Psychology▯ - naïve psychology: use causal theories to understand their world and other people’s behaviour, theories have a similar structure to scientific theories: everyone is a naïve scientist▯ - 1. people have the need to explain the cause of other’s behaviour in order to understand their motivation ▯ - 2. people are motivated to try to figure out why a person acted in a given way so they can predict how that person will act in the future ▯ - 3. when people make causal attributions, they make a distinction between internal and external causes of behaviour ▯ -
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