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Chapter 8

Textbook- Chap. 8, 7, 9, 10 (320-332).pdf

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University of Guelph
PSYC 2310
Saba Safdar

PSYC2310Midterm Date Thursday March 6 2014Midterm 2 ReviewChapters 8 7 9 10 p 320332CHAPTER 8 SOCIAL INFLUENCE NORMS CONFORMITY COMPLIANCE AND OBEDIENCEHow Do Social Norms Inuence BehaviourMiller and McFarland 1987 participants read article before taking part in discussion with other students deliberately confusing and incomprehensibleparticipants told they could ask questions if they didnt understand didnt ask questions because of embarrassment other people understood articleerror with interpreting the social world we often see our own behaviour as different from other peoples behaviour and as caused by different factorsThe Power of Social Normssocial norms inuence values beliefs and behaviours guides to appropriate behaviourdescriptive norms describe how people behave in a given situation eg university what to wear where to go Saturday night etcinjunctive norms aka prescriptive norms describe what people should do in a situationthe type of behaviour that is approved in a certain situation regardless of whether or not the norm doesnt describe peoples typical behaviour eg not coming to class nakedSalganik Dodds and Watts study at Columbia University14000 students asked to participate in a study of music preferences50 listen to songs download the ones they like no information given50 listen to songs download the ones they like given title how many times it had been downloaded by othersknowing how many times the song had been downloaded had an effectpeople quickly acquire norms of a new environment most likely to acquire norms when in a new situation look at established membersNolan Schultz Cialdini Goldstein and Griskeviciusask 810 participants about frequency of energy conservation measures motivation for such behaviour and beliefs about other peoples energy conservation behaviour beliefs about others conservation correlated with own actionsnorms less important in determining other factors Errors in Perceiving Social Normspluralistic ignorance misconception each individual in agroup privately rejects norms but believe other members agree with norms eg when a professor asks is there any questions and no one answers everyone assumes that everyone else understands everythingJacquie Vorauer and Rebecca Ratner why students fail to make the rst move in initiating a romantic relationshipquestionnaire how frequently fear of rejection played a part how they believe such fear inhibited others from pursuing a relationship with them74 fear of rejection prevents them from making a move71 other persons lack of interest explained their lack of interest in the other personVorauer Cameron Holmes and Pearcefear of rejection prompts signal amplication bias people believe their body language communicates more romantic interest to potential partners than it actually doesmisperceiving social norms of an environment consequencesThe Pressure to Conform to Social Normspowerful pressure those who deviate experience negative consequences motivate us to adhere to normsembarrassment awkwardness alienationCLASSIC STUDY Schachter students engage in group decisionmaking task discuss Johnny Rocco juvenile awaiting sentencing for minor crime determine appropriate punishment3 actual participants 3 people secretly experimenters acting as studentsone experimenter mode went along with the groupone experimenter slider chose a position of extreme deviation from the group then move toward group decisionone experimenter deviate chose a position of extreme divination maintained positionstudents asked to rate how they liked the people 1best9leastliked the conformist the best and deviant the leastdeviate 611mode 447slider 476watching someone else experience rejection can cause conformityJanes and Olsonstudents watch a humorous videosome see one person making fun of themselves my acne was so bad as a teenager they used to call me pizza facesome see one person making fun of another his acne was so bad as a teenager they used to call him pizza facesome see comedians making jokes to one one in particularall see cartoon before rating they nd out that others rated the cartoon as very funny really it was not funnyratingsself ridicule tape and comedian rated cartoon as not funnybullying tape conform to what others said about cartoon funnydesire to conform can result in positive behaviourRobert Cialdini compare different types of messages given to hotel guests to encourage them to reuse their towels benecial in conserving energy costshelp save the environment you can show your respect for nature and help save the environment by reusing your towels during your stay35 reusejoin your fellow guests in helping save the environment almost 75 of guests who are asked to participate in our new resource savings program do help by using their towels more than once You can join your fellow guests to help save the environment by reusing your towels during your stay45 reuseWhat Factors Lead to ConformityWhy We Conform
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