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PSYC 2310 (266)
Chapter 14


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PSYC 2310
Paula Barata

Chapter 14- Treatment of Psychological Disorders - basic goal to help people change maladaptive, self-defeating thoughts, feelings, behaviour patterns to enable normal functioning Psychodynamic Therapies: - Freud believed mental events associated - Free association: procedure of verbalizing all thoughts that enter consciousness without censorship - Believe dreams express impulses, fantasies, wishes, person keeps defended during wake hours - Dream interpretation- help client search for unconscious material contained in the dreams - Resistance: defensive manoeuvres that hinder therapy process - Transference: when client responds irrationally to analysts as if he/she were an important figure from the past brings out open repressed feelings, can be pos transference (affection) / neg transference (anger) - Interpretation: statement by therapist to provide client with insight to behaviour - Psychodynamic therapies increasingly popular compared to psychoanalysis - Promote insight, focus of current life events - Interpersonal therapy: structured therapy focuses on current interpersonal problems and enhancing interpersonal skills Humanistic Psychotherapies: - view humans as capable of consciously controlling actions/taking responsibility - everyone possesses inner resources for self-healing/personal growth - focus on present and future instead of past, help clients be aware of feelings as they occur - Rogers’ client-centred therapy highlights importance of 3 characteristics: unconditional positive regard, empathy and genuineness - Goal of Gestalt therapy to remove blockages to awareness of immediate experience by making them more aware of feelings and their interactions with others Cognitive Therapies: - thought patterns so well-practised we are only minimally aware and accept them - Ellis’ Rational-Emotive Therapy o A activating event triggers emotion o B belief system (way person appraises event) o C consequences (emotional, behavioural) of appraisal o D disputing erroneous belief system *changing maladaptive behaviour - Beck’s cognitive therapy points out errors of thinking/logic under emotional disturbance - Self-instructional training: cognitive coping approach of giving adaptive self- instructions to oneself at crucial phases of coping process Behaviour Therapies: - behaviour disorders are learned in the same ways as normal behaviours - maladaptive behaviours can be unlearned by classical/operant conditioning - exposure: therapeutic technique designed to extinguish anxiety responses by exposing clients to anxiety-arousing stimuli/situations while preventing escape/avoidance through response prevention Extinction Classical conditioning a CS is presented without the UCS, causing the CR to weaken/stop occurring Operant conditioning occurs in absence of reinforcement for previously reinforced response, causes that response to weaken/stop Response prevention: keep operant avoidance response from occurring Flooding: exposure to real-life stimuli Implosion: client imagines scenes involving the stimuli - systematic desensitization: treatment for anxiety disorders (learning based) Joseph Wolpe - counterconditioning: new response incompatible with anxiety conditioned to anxiety-arousing CS - stimulus hierarchy: creation of a series of anxiety-arousing stimuli ranked in terms of amount of anxiety evoked - in vivo desensitization: exposure to hierarchy of real-life situations (controlled) - aversion therapy: establish conditioned aversion response to inappropriate stimulus that attracts the client - operant procedures applied successf
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