Textbook Notes (368,122)
Canada (161,660)
Psychology (3,337)
PSYC 2310 (266)
Chapter 1

Dynamics of Behaviour Chapter 1

9 Pages
81 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 2310
Professor
Anneke Olthof
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter 1: - Psychology- study of behaviour and factors that influence it - Behaviour- actions we observe directly and the processes (mental events)- thoughts, feelings, images, physiological reactions - Psychologists look at biological, individual, and environmental aspects - Explores nature and causes of our behaviour and feelings (motives and thoughts) - Basic research- quest for knowledge o Describe how people behave and identify the factors that influence or cause a type of behaviour - Applied research- designed to solve specific practical problems o Uses principles discovered through basic research to solve practical problems - Jigsaw program- applied research program where knowledge gained from basic research on factors that increase and decrease intergroup hostility o Translated into a cooperative learning program designed to reduce interracial hostility in racially integrated schools - Four main goals o Describe behaviours o Explain and understand causes and behaviours o Predict behaviours under certain conditions o Influence and control behaviours with knowledge and control of causes to enhance human welfare - Understand causes of behaviour and when causes are absent or present  predict when behaviour will occur - If causes are controlled  control behaviour - Perspectives- different ways of viewing people and their behaviour o Make up their intellectual and scientific traditions o Analyzing behaviour and its biological, psychological, and environmental causes o Influence how psychology develops, what it learns about behaviour, contributions to improve human conditions o Biological, cognitive, psychodynamic, behavioural, humanistic, and socio-cultural perspectives Behavioural Perspective o Brain, genes, and behaviour o Mind-body dualism- mind is a spiritual entity not subject to the physical laws that control body o Monism- mind is not separate to spiritual entity, mental events are simply a product of physical events o Focuses n physical side of human nature o Biochemical processes cause our thoughts, emotions, and actions o Genetic factors influence development and behaviour of human organisms o Electrical nature of the nerve conduction was an important discovery in research o Luigi Galvani- severed leg of a frog and discovered it would move if an electrical current was applied to it o Karl Lashley- looked at brain mechanisms in learning  Created damage to different brain regions to study the effects of learning and memory abilities o James Olds and Peter Milner- parts of the brain specialize in providing pleasurable sensations o W. B. Scoville and Brenda Milner- discovered damage to some areas of the brain are associated with severe memory loss  Tested on a patient (H. M) who suffered from epilepsy o Electroencephalogram- measures electrical activity in large areas of the brain through electrodes attached to scalp  Can study brain-waves and correlation of behaviours and states of consciousness without invading brain o We exist today because of the ability of our ancestors to adapt to a changing environment (biologically and behaviourally) o Focuses on biological processes in thousands of a second and processes in thousands of generations o Charles Darwin- theory of evolution  Species evolve over time in response to the environment  Survival of the fittest  Natural selection- inheritable characteristics that increase the likelihood of survival  Having that characteristic means a persons more likely to survive and reproduce o Evolutionary psychology- role of evolution in the development of behaviour and mental mechanisms o Organisms biology determines its behavioural capabilities and it’s behaviour determines whether or not it will survive o Sociobiology- social behaviour is built into the human species as products of evolution o Martin Daly and Margo Wilson- females have a greater investment in the reproductive process (women have less opportunity to reproduce) o One’s genetic survival is more important than one’s own physical survival o Behaviour genetics- behavioural trends are influenced by genetic factors o Organisms can be bred selectively not only for physical traits but instead for behavioural traits such as aggression or intelligence o Human behaviour is influenced by genetic factors Cognitive Perspective: - Sees humans as information processors and problem solvers - Actions are governed by thought and planning - Look at how mental processes influence our motives, emotions, and behaviours - Schools of psychological thought were developed where mental processes were studied to form this perspective - Structuralism o Wilhelm Wundt modeled the mind through physical and biological sciences  Founded the first laboratory of experimental psychology  Scientific psychologists studied there (August Kirschmann, James Baldwin, George Humphrey, Edward Tichener) o Analysis of the mind in terms of its basic elements o Introspection- method of “looking within” and verbally reporting on immediate experience o Used by the structuralists to study contents of the mind - Functionalism o Study the functions of consciousness (the whys) not the structure (the what’s) o Influenced by Darwin’s evolutionary theory  Stressed importance of adaptive behaviour to help respond successfully to environment o William James- leader in the movement who helped widen the scope to include biological and mental processes and behaviour - Gestalt Psychology o How elements of experience are organized into wholes o Opposite of Structuralism o Perceptions and mental processes are organized so the whole is greater and different from the sum of it’s parts o Kang Lee and Alejo Freire- tendency to perceive wholes is built into nervous system o Wolfgang Kohler- did research with apes and found that the ability to perceive relationships is through intelligence  Insight- the sudden perception of a useful relationship or solution to a problem o Demonstrations of insight learning stimulated new interest in perception, problem solving, and intelligence - Jean Piaget
More Less

Related notes for PSYC 2310

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit