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PSYC 2310 (266)
Chapter 9

Chapter 9 Dynamics of Behaviour Notes

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PSYC 2310
Anneke Olthof

CHAPTER 9Intelligence in Historical PerspectiveIntelligence The ability to acquire knowledge to think and reason effectively and deal with the environmentSir Francis Galton 1869Argued mental ability is inherited Influenced by the theory of evolution developed by cousin Charles Darwin Showed through study of family trees that eminence Importance rank and genius seemed to occur across generations within certain familiesSuch studies made him believe people had inherited mental constitutions His measures of nervous system efficiency proved unrelated to socially relevant measures of mental abilityAlfred Binet Early 1900s Development of intelligence tests Mental age MAThe age at which an individual is performing intellectually Interested in solving a practical problem rather than supporting a theory Certain children seemed unable to benefit from normal public schooling In developing his tests Binet made 2 assumptions about intelligence 1 Mental abilities develop with age 2 The rate at which people gain mental competence is a characteristic of the personand it fairly constant over timeWilliam SternUsed Binets MA to develop intelligence quotient IQIQMental AgeChronological Age x 100 Todays tests no longer use the concept of mental age because Increases in mental age begin to slow down dramatically at approx age 16 Some intellectual skills show an actual decline at advanced ages The StanfordBinet Contained mostly verbal items and produced a single IQ scoreWechsler Scales David Wechsler believed that intelligence should be measured as a group of distinct but related verbal and nonverbal abilities 1939 Wechsler adult intelligence scale1955 Wechsler Intelligence scale for children 1967 Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence TODAY the Wechsler tests are the most widely used individually administered intelligence tests in the US The Wechsler scales consist of a series of subtests that fall into two classes Verbal testsPerformance TestsGroup Intelligence TestsIQ tests that can be administered to many people at once Eg LorgeThorndike Intelligence Test Use written questions rather than verbal ones Other group tests do not provide IQ scores but measure specific mental skills SAT LSAT etcAchievement Tests designed to find out how much a person has learned in highschool Usually good predictor of future performance in a similar situation It assumes that everyone has had the same opportunity to learn the material being testedAptitude Test Contains novel puzzle like problems that presumably go beyond prior learning and are thought to measure the applicants potential for future learning and performance Fairer since aptitude tests are supposed to depend less on prior knowledge than on a persons
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