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Psychology (3,337)
PSYC 2310 (266)
Chapter 2

Chapter 2 Notes

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PSYC 2310
Anneke Olthof

Chapter 2Studying Behaviour Scientifically y The presence of bystanders produces a diffusion of responsibility a psychological state in which each person feels decreased personal responsibility for interveningHypothesis a tentative explanation of prediction about some phenomenon y Ifthen statement Theory a set of formal statements that explains how and why certain events are related to one another Hindsight problem with relying solely on hindsight reasoning is that related past events can be explained in many creative reasonable and sometimes contradictory way A good theory has several important characteristics y Incorporates existing facts and observationsy Is testable y Is supported y Law of Parsimonyof two theories can explain and predict the same phenomena equally well the simpler theory is the preferred one Variable any characteristic of an organism or situation that can differOperational Definition defining a concept or variable in terms of the specific procedures used to produce or measure itSelfReport Measures ask people to report on their own knowledge beliefs feelings behaviours and experiencesSocial Desirability the tendency to respond in a socially acceptable manner rather than according to how one truly feels or behavesReliable consistent observationsUnobtrusive Measures recording behaviour in a way that keeps participants unaware that they are being observedArchival Measures records or documents that already existDescriptive Research seeks to identify how humans and other animals behave particularly in natural settingsCase Study an indepth analysis of an individual group or an event
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