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PSYC 2310 (266)
Chapter 12

Chapter 12 - Development over the Lifespan

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PSYC 2310
Anneke Olthof

Chapter 12Development over the LifespanDevelopmental psychology examines changes in our biological physical psychological and behavioural processes as we age Four broad issues guide developmental research 1 Nature and Nurture 2 Critical and Sensitive Periods Critical Period a time period in which exposure to particular kinds of stimulation is required for normal development to occur Sensitive Period an optimal age range for certain experiences but if those experiences occur at another time normal development will still be possible 3 Continuity versus Discontinuityis developmental gradual or in stages 4 Stability versus Changedo characteristics remain consistent as we ageCross Sectional Design a research design that simultaneously compares people of different ages at particular point in timeLongitudinal Design research that repeatedly tests the same cohort as it grows older Prenatal DevelopmentPrenatal development consists of three stages of physical growth The germinal stage y Approx first two weeks of development y When sperm fertilized egg Zygote the fertilized eggThe Embryonic Stage y Extends from the end of the second week to the eighth week after conception Embryo scientific term for the prenatal organism during the second week through the eighth week after conceptionFetal Stage y Ninth week after conception y At about 24 weeks the eyes open y By 28 weeks the fetus attains the age of viabilitylikely to survive outside the womb in case of premature birth Fetus the scientific term for the prenatal organism from the ninth week after conception until birthGenetics and Sex Determination y A females egg and a males sperm cells each have only 23 chromosomes y At conception a zygote forms which has 23 pairs of chromosomes rdy The 23 pair determines the babys sex y Females contain two Xs XX
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