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Chapter 16

Chapter 16 – Psych 1200.docx

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PSYC 2310
Anneke Olthof

Chapter 16Psych 1200Defining normal and abnormalhere are several possibilities 1 The personal values of a given diagnostician 2 The expectations of the culture in which a person currently lives 3 The expectations of the persons culture of origin 4 General Assumptions about human nature 5 Statistical deviation form the norm 6 Harmfulness suffering impairment We are likely to label behaviour as abnormal if they are intensely distressing to the individualPersonal distress is neither necessary nor sufficient to define abnormalityMost behaviours judged abnormal are dysfunctional either for the individual or for society Societys judgments concerning the deviance of a given behaviourConduct within every society is regulated by normsBoth personal and social judgments of behaviour enter into considerations of what is abnormalAbnormal Behaviour behaviour that is personally distressful personally dysfunctional andor culturally deviant that other people judge it to be inappropriate or maladaptive The belief that abnormal behaviour is caused by supernatural forces goes back to the ancient Chinese Egyptians and Hebrews all of whom attributed deviance to the work of the devilThe release the spirit a procedure called trephination was carried outWestern medicine had returned to viewing mental disorders as biologically based and was attempting to extend medical diagnoses to themGeneral Paresis a disorder characterized in its advanced stages by mental deterioration and bizarre behaviourEach of us has some degree of vulnerability for developing a psychological disorder given sufficient stressVulnerability can have a biological basis such as our genotype over or underactivty of a neurotransmitter system in the brain a hairtrigger autonomic nervous system a hormonal factor or a personality factorStressorsome recent or current event that requires a person to copeReliability in psychological testing the consistency with which a measure asses a given characteristic or different observers agree on a given score the degree to which clinicians show high levels of agreement in their diagnostic decisionsValidity the extent to which a test measures what it is supposed to the degree to which a diagnostic systems categories contain the core features of the behaviour disorders and permit differentiation among the disordersThe DSMIVTR is the most widely used diagnostic classification system in north AmericaHas 350 diagnostic categories contains detailed lists of observable behaviours that must be present in order for a diagnosis to be madeFive Dimensions Axis 1 Primary Diagnosis Axis 2 PersonalityDevelopmental disorders Axis 3 Relevant physical disorders Axis 4 Severity of psychosocial stressors Axis 5 Global assessment of level of functioning An alternative or supplement to the categorical system is a dimensional system in which relevant behaviours are rated along a severity measureAssumption that psychological disorders are extensions different in degree rather than kind from normal personality functioningPersonality disorders where 6 basic dimensions of disordered personality functioningNegative Emotionality Schizotypy Disinhintion Introversion Antagonism and Compulsivityare rated by clinicians to define a set of 6 personality disorders These factorsExtraversion Agreeableness Conscientiousness Neuroticism and Openness to experiencesare thought by proponents to be universal dimensions of personality Beneficial consequences helps to link normal and abnormal personality functioning Social and Personal ImplicationsAccept the level an as accurate description of the individual rather than of the behaviourCompetency a legal decision that a defendant is mentally capable of understanding the nature of criminal charges participating meaningfully in a trial and consulting with an attorney Insanitya legal decision that a defendant was so severely impaired at the time a crime was committed that he or she was incapable of appreciating the wrongfulness of the act or of controlling his or her behaviourMedical Students Diseaseread descriptions of disorders they often see some of those symptoms in themselves
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