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Chapter 16

Chapter 16 – Psych 1200.docx

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PSYC 2310
Anneke Olthof

Chapter 16 Psych 1200 Defining normal and abnormal here are several possibilities: 1. The personal values of a given diagnostician 2. The expectations of the culture in which a person currently lives 3. The expectations of the persons culture of origin 4. General Assumptions about human nature 5. Statistical deviation form the norm 6. Harmfulness, suffering, impairment We are likely to label behaviour as abnormal if they are intensely distressing to the individual Personal distress is neither necessary nor sufficient to define abnormality Most behaviours judged abnormal are dysfunctional either for the individual or for society Societys judgments concerning the deviance of a given behaviour Conduct within every society is regulated by norms Both personal and social judgments of behaviour enter into considerations of what is abnormal Abnormal Behaviour: behaviour that is personally distressful personally dysfunctional, and/or culturally deviant that other people judge it to be inappropriate or maladaptive The belief that abnormal behaviour is caused by supernatural forces goes back to the ancient Chinese, Egyptians, and Hebrews, all of whom attributed deviance to the work of the devil The release the spirit, a procedure called trephination was carried out Western medicine had returned to viewing mental disorders as biologically based and was attempting to extend medical diagnoses to them General Paresis, a disorder characterized in its advanced stages by mental deterioration and bizarre behaviour Each of us has some degree of vulnerability for developing a psychological disorder, given sufficient stress Vulnerability can have a biological basis, such as our genotype, over- or under-activty of a neurotransmitter system in the brain, a hair-trigger autonomic nervous system, a hormonal factor, or a personality factor Stressor some recent or current event that requires a person to cope Reliability: in psychological testing, the consistency with which a measure asses a given characteristic, or different observers agree on a given score; the degree to which clinicians show high levels of agreement in their diagnostic decisions Validity: the extent to which a test measures what it is supposed to; the degree to which a diagnostic systems categories contain the core features of the behaviour disorders and permit differentiation among the disorders The DSM-IV-TR, is the most widely used diagnostic classification system in north America Has 350 diagnostic categories, contains detailed lists of observable behaviours that must be present in order for a diagnosis to be made Five Dimensions: Axis 1: Primary Diagnosis Axis 2: Personality/Developmental disorders Axis 3: Relevant physical disorders Axis 4: Severity of psychosocial stressors Axis 5: Global assessment of level of functioning An alternative, or supplement, to the categorical system is a dimensional system, in which relevant behaviours are rated along a severity measure Assumption that psychological disorders are extensions different in degree, rather than kind, from normal personality functioning Personality disorders, where 6 basic dimensions of disordered personality functioning Negative Emotionality, Schizotypy, Disinhintion, Introversion, Antagonism, and Compulsivity are rated by clinicians to define a set of 6 personality disorders These factors Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Neuroticism, and Openness to experiences are thought by proponents to be universal dimensions of personality Beneficial consequences helps to link normal and abnormal personality functioning Social and Personal Implications Accept the level an as accurate description of the individual rather than of the behaviour Competency: a legal decision that a defendant is mentally capable of understanding the nature of criminal charges, participating meaningfully in a trial, and consulting with an attorney Insanity: a legal decision that a defendant was so severely impaired at the time a crime was committed that he or she was incapable of appreciating the wrongfulness of the act or of controlling his or her behaviour Medical Students Disease read descriptions of disorders, they often see some of those symptoms in themselvesANXIETY DISORDERS Anxiety Disorders: a group of behaviour disorders in which anxiety and associates maladaptive behaviours are the core of the disturbance Anxiety responses have 4 components: 1. Subjective-emotional component, including feelings of tension and apprehension 2. Cognitive component, including subjective feelings of apprehension, a sense of pending danger, and a feeling of inability to cope 3. Physiological responses, including increased heart rate and blood pressure 4. Behavioural responses, such as avoidance of certain situations and impaired task performance Incidence refers to the number of new cases Prevalence refers to the number of people who have a disorder during a specified period of time Phobias: strong and irrational fears of particular objects or circumstances Realize that there fears are out of all proportion to the danger involved, but they feel helpless to deal with these fears
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