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Chapter 10

CHAPTER 10.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 2310
Professor
Saba Safdar
Semester
Fall

Description
CHAPTER 10: INTERGROUP RELATIONS  Intergroup Relations= the way in which people in groups perceive, think about, feel about and act toward people in other groups. HOW DO DIFFERENT THEORIES EXPLAIN INTERGROUP RELATIONS  Important aspect is people in a crowd. Studying behaviour in a crowd can be difficult as there are many factors that influence behaviour: individual motivation and goals, presence of others who share or oppose their own goals etc. EARLY RESEARCH AND THEORIES OF CROWD BEHAVIOUR  Gustave Le Bon- suggested that in crowds people submerge in a very primitive mind – people become ‘mad’ in crowds.  Le Bon- 3 characteristics are associated with processes specific to crowds: 1. Anonymity= less responsible for actions 2. Suggestibility= when people’s social constraints are loosened they become more suggestible. 3. Contagion= the irrationality and acts of violence are contagious and sweep through the crowd.  Le Bon described crowd as source of power.  Under the influence of the collective mind > people are less responsible for their actions based on instinct, become less intelligent and more violent.  Allport- rejected idea of a group mind > individual in crowd behaves just as he would behave alone only more so. Crowds allowed people to be bad  Allport was highly critical of Le Bon- he argued that:  The individual in the crown behaves just as he would behave alone only more so.  Allport- suggested that in crowd people reveal their true nature. PEOPLE IN GROUPS  Social Facilitation= being in a group facilitates certain behaviours.  Social Loafing= diminishing one’s responsibility. DEINDIVIDUATION  Zimbardo- Deindividuation= the tendency to not follow normal rules of behaviour as a results of losing one’s self-awareness.  More likely to occur in group settings.  De-Individuation in the dark: Gerge, Gergen & Bartons- experiment in a dark room:  90% of people touched and hugged each other.  Diener- Halloween study:  Person at door would ask children who they were and where they were from. Kids would come alone or in groups > measured how much candy children would take.  Highest number of candies was taken by people who are anonymous and in a group.  Would take less candy if they were alone and not anonymous. Contributing Factors:  Group Size: As the size of the group increases, deindividuation increases, leading to higher probability of violence in group.  Zimbardo’s car experiment.  Anonymity:  As anonymity increases, inhibitions decreases leading to a higher probability of violence in group.  Stanford Prison experiment.  Zimbardo- KKK experiment > those wearing the KKK uniform administered twice as many shocks in comparison to someone who was wearing normal clothes. Uniform increases deindividuation.  Johnson & Downing- found participants who whore the nurse uniform administered significantly fewer shocks than those in the KKK costume > it depends on what is happening in the situation. So if the uniform is associated with
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