CHAPTER 10: INTERGROUP RELATIONS
Intergroup Relations= the way in which people in groups perceive, think
about, feel about and act toward people in other groups.
HOW DO DIFFERENT THEORIES EXPLAIN INTERGROUP RELATIONS
Important aspect is people in a crowd. Studying behaviour in a crowd can be
difficult as there are many factors that influence behaviour: individual
motivation and goals, presence of others who share or oppose their own
EARLY RESEARCH AND THEORIES OF CROWD BEHAVIOUR
Gustave Le Bon- suggested that in crowds people submerge in a very
primitive mind – people become ‘mad’ in crowds.
Le Bon- 3 characteristics are associated with processes specific to crowds:
1. Anonymity= less responsible for actions
2. Suggestibility= when people’s social constraints are loosened they become
3. Contagion= the irrationality and acts of violence are contagious and sweep
through the crowd.
Le Bon described crowd as source of power.
Under the influence of the collective mind > people are less responsible for
their actions based on instinct, become less intelligent and more violent.
Allport- rejected idea of a group mind > individual in crowd behaves just as he
would behave alone only more so. Crowds allowed people to be bad
Allport was highly critical of Le Bon- he argued that:
The individual in the crown behaves just as he would behave alone only more
Allport- suggested that in crowd people reveal their true nature.
PEOPLE IN GROUPS
Social Facilitation= being in a group facilitates certain behaviours.
Social Loafing= diminishing one’s responsibility.
Zimbardo- Deindividuation= the tendency to not follow normal rules of
behaviour as a results of losing one’s self-awareness.
More likely to occur in group settings.
De-Individuation in the dark: Gerge, Gergen & Bartons- experiment in a dark
90% of people touched and hugged each other.
Diener- Halloween study: Person at door would ask children who they were and where they
were from. Kids would come alone or in groups > measured how
much candy children would take.
Highest number of candies was taken by people who are anonymous
and in a group.
Would take less candy if they were alone and not anonymous.
Group Size: As the size of the group increases, deindividuation increases,
leading to higher probability of violence in group.
Zimbardo’s car experiment.
As anonymity increases, inhibitions decreases leading to a higher
probability of violence in group.
Stanford Prison experiment.
Zimbardo- KKK experiment > those wearing the KKK uniform administered
twice as many shocks in comparison to someone who was wearing normal
clothes. Uniform increases deindividuation.
Johnson & Downing- found participants who whore the nurse uniform
administered significantly fewer shocks than those in the KKK costume > it
depends on what is happening in the situation. So if the uniform is