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PSYC 2330 (89)
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PSYC 2330- Ch 1 Notes.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 2330
Professor
Francesco Leri
Semester
Winter

Description
PSYC 2330- Chapter 1  Learning- one of the biological processes that facilitates adaptation to one’s environment.  Learning to withhold responses, as important as making responses (not crossing a street when light is red) Historical Antecedents Rene Descartes-  Before him actions were considered the result of deliberate intent- not controlled by external stimuli  Created Cartesian Dualism: two classes of human behaviour o Voluntary & involuntary  Involuntary actions (reflexive)- Sense organs  Sent through Nerves to brain  brain sends to muscles, bypasses the pineal gland and mind.  Voluntary actions- Sense organs  Nerves to brain  pineal gland  mind  muscles (carry out the action).  Considered animals incapable voluntary actions  Mind was assumed to be a non-physical entity  Created mentalism (concerned with workings/contents of mind) & reflexology (concerned with mechanisms of reflexive behaviour)  Foundations of modern study of learning Nativism- approach that assumes we are born with innate ideas about certain things  John Locke- believed that all ideas people had were acquired from experiences- disagreed with nativism o Empiricism- - mind gradually filled with ideas/info after experiencing sensory info Thomas Hobbes- believed mind operated as a reflex  Hedonism- pursuit of pleasure and avoidance of pain Association- simple sensations combined into more complex ideas  Primary rules originally by Aristotle 1. Contiguity- if two events repeatedly happen in the same space and time they will become related 2. Similarity- things will be related if they are similar in some way 3. Contrast- things will be related if they are different in some way (no contemporary evidence for this)  Thomas Brown o Intensity of sensations o How frequently they are related together o Dependent of the number of other associations event is already involved in & similarity between past associations and current one being formed.  Herman Ebbinghaus o First to investigate mechanisms of association o Nonsense Syllables- three letter combinations devoid of meaning, influence how someone might react to them Charles Bell & Francois Magendie- showed that there are separate nerves for transmitting sensory information and motor information. I.M. Sechenov- stimuli didn’t always elicit direct responses, in some cases can release
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