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Chapter 5

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 2330
Professor
Francesco Leri
Semester
Winter

Description
Chapter 5: Instrumental Conditioning: Foundations  Classical conditioning reflects how organisms adjust to events in their environment that they cannot directly control Instrumental behavior: behavior that occurs because it was previously instrumental (aka- influential) in producing certain consequences Law of effect: If a response in the presence of a stimulus is followed by a satisfying event, the association between the stimulus (S) and the response (R) is strengthened  If the response is followed by an annoying event, the S-R association is weakened.  Thorndike’s proposal is the basis for the compulsive nature of drug abuse Discrete-trial procedure: a method of instrumental conditioning in which the participant can perform the instrumental response only during specified periods, usually determined by either placement of the participant in an experiment chamber, or by the presentation of a stimulus.  Often conducted in a type of maze Free-Operant Procedures: a method of instrumental conditioning that permits repeated performance of the instrumental response without intervention from the experimenter.  Invented by Skinner to study more behavior in a more continuous manner  Used a Skinner box – a box that contains a small lever that the rat can push down repeatedly  Operant response: the effect that it has on the environment (ex- the lever press) Magazine training:  Many steps to produce lever-press responding in rat st  1 – rat has to learn when food is available  Classical conditioning – the sound of the food delivery device is repeatedly paired with the delivery of the food  Food-delivery service is called: the food magazine  After enough pairings of the sound of the food magazine with food delivery, the sound comes to elicit a response: the animal goes to the food and pick up the food pellets  This phase called: magazine training  Once rearing over the lever has been established- the food pellet will be given only if the rat actually presses the lever – called shaping Instrumental conditioning Procedures:  Appetitive stimulus: a pleasant outcome  Aversive stimulus: an unpleasant outcome  Positive reinforcement: response produces an appetitive stimulus; produces an increase in response rate. (ex- father gives daughter a cookie when she puts her toys away)  Punishment: the response produces a aversive stimulus; effect punishment procedures produce a decline in the instrumental response. (ex- your boss criticizes you for being late to a meeting)  Negative Reinforcement: the response turns off an aversive stimulus; increase the instrumental response (ex- opening an umbrella to stop the rain from getting you wet)  Omission Training (AKA- differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO)): the response prevents the delivery of a pleasant/appetitive stimulus; preferred method for discouraging human behavior ( ex- suspending someone’s driver’s license for driving drunk – withdrawal of the pleasure & privilege of driving) Fundamental Elements of Instrumental Conditioning:  The response  The outcome of the response (the rein
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