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Chapter 5

Chapter 5 - Personality Dispositions Over Time- Stability, Coherence & Change.docx

4 Pages

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PSYC 2330
Stephen Lewis

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Chapter 5: Personality Dispositions Over Time: Stability, Coherence, and Change Personality Psychology January 26 2012 Personality Development: the continuities, consistencies, and stabilities in people over time. 3 Important Forms of Stability: 1. Rank Order Stability: is the maintenance of individual position within a group. 2. Mean Level Stability: population or majority in one favour i.e. population remaining liberal Mean Level Change: population favour changes together over time. 3. Personality Coherence: maintaining rank order in relation to other individuals but changing the manifestations of the trait. i.e. At age 8 boy manifests his dominance by showing toughness while play fighting, calling weaker kids sissies etc. While at age 20 the same kid shows his dominance persuading others to accept his political views, asking girl out on date etc. Personality Change: - The changes are typically internal to the person, not merely changes in the external surroundings such as walking into another room. - The changes are relatively enduring over time, rather than being merely temporary. Analysis of Personality: Three Levels Population Level: deals with changes and constancies that apply more or less to everyone. i.e. everyone in the population tends to increase in sexual motivation at puberty. Group Differences Level: Gender differences, as well as cultural and ethnic. Individual Difference Level: i.e. can we predict which individuals, based on their personalities, will go through a midlife crisis. Stability of Personality Over Lifespan 1. Stability of Temperament During Infancy Temperament: the individual differences that emerge very early in life, are likely to have a heritable basis and are often involved with emotionality or arousability. - Stable & early individual differences - More stability over shorter intervals - Stability increases with maturity 2. Stability During Childhood Longitudinal Studies: examinations of the same groups of individuals over time Block & Block Longitudinal Study: - Assessed activity level via actometer & teacher ratings. - Actometer: a recording device attached to the wrists of the children during several play periods. Main Findings: - Results from both measures were positively correlated (validity) - Results from same measure but at different times correlated (stability) - Activity was relatively stable with more stability over shorter intervals With regards to aggression it was found: More stability in smaller vs. larger time spans. Bullying and Problems later in life Brody, 1996; Olweus, 1978, 1979 - Different raters identified s
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