PSYC 2330 Chapter Notes - Chapter 9: Exposure Therapy, Window Period, Eyeblink Conditioning

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Ch. 9 - Extinction of Conditioned Behaviour
Enhancing Extinction
- Extinction does not erase what was originally learned and th extinguished behaviour can reappear
with the passage of time (spontaneous recovery), a change in context (renewal), reexposure to the
US (reinstatement) or the extinction of another response (resurgence)
Number of Spacing of Extinction Trials
- The simplest way to increase the impact of extinction is to conduct more extinction trials
The more extinction trials means that there will be a profound decrease in conditioned
Ex. eye-blink conditioning, taste-aversion learning & context conditioning
- Another way is to conduct extinction trials spaced close together in time rather than spread out
Using fear-conditioning with mice found a greater loss of fear during an extinction session
with massed trials (presenting stimuli closer together intertrial intervals of 6seconds) than
with spaced trials (intertrial interval of 600seconds)
Spaced trials produce more enduring extinction effect (less spontaneous recovery or renewal)
while with massed it is likely to return with spontaneous recovery or renewal making spaced
Immediate Versus Delayed Extinction
Memory Consolidation used for establishing a learning experience in long-term memory
Possible that introducing extinction before the memory of acquisition has been fully consolidated
might change the memory and promote extinction performance (immediately after aquistion
rather than 1 or 2 days later)
Produces a more rapid loss of conditioned behaviour than conducting extinction one day later
More likely to show spontaneous recovery or renewal due to immediate extinction
Repetition of Extinction/Test Cycles
- To reduce the reappearance of extinguished behaviour is to repeat the extinction/test cycle
- Ex. study involving goal tracking
During initial acquisition phase, a noise CS was paired with the presentation of food in a cup,
rats were conditioned to poke nose in cup when CS was presented
Extinction was produced with 8 CS-alone trials conducted during each daily session
During each extinction session, responding was highest during the first two trials and then
declined (and when returned to the chamber the next session responding was higher than it
had been at the end of the preceding session, aka spontaneous recovery)
Recovery declined with repeated extinction/test sessions
Conducting Extinction in Multiple Contexts
- To increase the impact of extinction training is to conduct extinction in several different contexts
- Eliminate renewal effect
- Conducting extinction in several different contexts may serve to increase the stimulus
generalization of extinction
- Whether or not extinction in multiple contexts facilitates the generalization of extinction
performance (and the reduction of the renewal effect) depends on the number of extinction trials
that are conducted
Ex. extinction of fear using a conditioned suppression procedure
By the end of extinction training, all of the groups showed virtually no fear of the CS;
however, fear reappeared when the rats were returned to context A
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