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Chapter 1

CHAPTER 1.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 2360
Professor
Carol Anne Hendry

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CHAPTER 1 - do not believe authority figures (pseudoscience) GOALS 1. knowledge base of psychology (familiarity with major concepts, theoretical pespectives, findings and trends in psyc 2. Research methods in psyc 3. Critical thinking skills in psyc 4. Applications of psyc 5. Values in psyc 6. Personal development 7. Career planning HOW TO STAY IN TOUCH WITH NEW PSYC STUFF AFTER SCHOOL - American psychological Association (APA) and Association of psychological Sciences (APS) - All scholarly resourses - Read published research finsings (library) - Conduct own research - Media outlets (not always accurate) Media shows many myths in syc (we only use 10% of brains, opposites attract etc.) WHY? Harris : journalists and psychologists use very different languages - always gonna be inaccurate GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR INTERPRETING RESEARCH IN THE MEDIA 1. Locate original sources 2. Look for correlational fidings (does not establish cause and effect) 3. Watch for balanced reporting, mininterpretation of numbers and generalization Pseudoscience vs science - horoscopes / astrology = pseudoscience - pseudoscience: any theory, method or belief that appears to be based in science but in reality it is not Pseudoscience - means “false science” - benefits by gathering info through intuition, tenacity, or authority to maintain its scientific appearance - relying on intuition will not always lead to truth - tenacity is defines as the persistence to maintain over time (repeated over and over again until person believes it to be true - “they” have said or shown, but no clue who THEY are – authority - Pseudoscience has no reliance on critical objectivity or logical reasoning Eg Phrenology Crainology Mesmerism Repressed memory theory Science - accumulation of knowledge via systematic ovservation or experimentaion using the scientific method - scientific method is a step by step process by which hypotheses are tests and retestes - relies on empirical, self correcting and control - emprocal = knowledge is gained via observation, experience or experimentation. Data collection = conclusion = inferences of a topic of study - Self correcting – science encourages challenges. True or false. System of checks and balances to ensure accurate info - Control – determines by direct manipulation of a desired variable or management or removal of unwanted factors that can influence observations and experiments (which factors are important in research and which are not, make direct comparisons and determine cause and effect) - Critical thinking - theories - statistical techniques Reliable Observations - measurement theory Rigorous testing - hypothesis testing - peer review SCIENTIFIC METHOD - based on empiricism (idea that knowledge is based on observation) - - what we see and observe is real - there is a real world that follows systematic rules and laws - the real world does not depend on understanding (we do not vote on science) How science works - accurate observations - search for discovery - open exchange - falsifabiity (must be possible to disconfirm) - peer review - replicable - new knowledge Forers experiement - personality test to students - rate results from 0-5 - average rating was 4.26 - all results were the same Tendency to rate sets of statements ad highly accurate even though the statements could apply to many people CHAPTER 2 GOALS AND METHODS OF PSYC Goals of psychological research a) describe (what?) b) explain (why?) c) predict (when, where?) d) influence (how?) - two types of research 1. basic research: conducted to further the collective knowledge about a topic within a field of study (describe, explain, predict) 2. applied research: occurs wen research is conducted to solve a practical problem within a field of study (influence) Use of the scientific method a) problem identification - initial review of previous research - identifying a topic to rsearch b) hypothesis formation - a statement about the relationship of the variables - must be worded so it csn be tested c) collection of data - design an experiment d) analysis of data e) conclusion - revisit hypothesis, accept or reject - correct any prblems f) report findngs - must be able to be replicated - publish if found new information in peer reviews sources theory: an overarching principle that explains separate research findings in an area - used after reporting consistent findings (used to make future predictions Cultivation theory: after repeated exposer to media, ones worldviews are shaped an changed ALWAYS try to disprove theories CHAPTER 3 – ethics Institutional review board (IRB) - committee that reviews proposals of intended research and evaluates if the research is ethical and if the rights of the participants are being protected - also found in hospitals and corporate world - Wichita jury study was one of the factors this was cerated - 1974 national research act - Belmont report put out in the late 70s said the three principles are respect, beneficence and justice – used in the IRB - You have to coplete a form and outline your research to IRB all the time Apa’s ethics code -revise in 2010 Guidelines 8.01 Institutional approval -secure IRB approval - always tell them when modifying experiment 8.02 informed consent - tell them info about research and how long it will take - shoule inform them that they do not have to participate, or they can stop and withdraw at any point - any consequences of withdrawal should be explained - any risks and research benefits should be stated - tell them responses are anonymous and confidential - incentives should be explained - contact info of research 8.03 informed consent for recording voices and images in research - unless naturalistic observations for which deception and permission will be obtained after 8.04 client/patient, student and subordinate research participants - must protect participant from negative consequences should the participant decide not to particpate or terminate particiation once it has started - also must offer alternative activities to research participation if it is required for a class or offered as extra credit in a class 8.05 dispensing with informed consent for research - some situations which does not require consent (if apa doenst the institution may) 8.06 offering inducements for research participation - equivalent to effort amount 8.07 Deception in research - active or passive deception - active: occurs when a researcher deliberately mislead the participant (gives a confederate or false info) confederate: is a participant in the study but also part of the research team - passive: deception by omission, when a researcher withholds information about the study - participants can withdraw their data 8.08 debriefing - immedietly after data collected - or provide contact info 8.09 Humane care and use of animals in research - need additional government policies - state and federal guidelines - pain minimized - care for animals 8.10 reporting research results 8.11 plagiarism 8.12 publication credit 8.13 duplicate publication of data - must be clearly documented 8,14 sharing research data for verification - share data with other professionals 8.15 reviewers - peer reviewers - respect confidentiality - cant steal others work chapter 4 - non experimental research methods - use existing records (archival research - questionaiire (survey research DIFFERENTIATING AMONG METHODS - qualitative: research inducted by nature . reseatrchers seek subjectivity through in depth collection of information and emerging hypothesis. Based on their observations - quantitative: rsearch deductive by nature. Seek objectivity through testable hypotheses and carefully designed studies - numbers and statustics, and generalized to population - experimental: manipulation of a varibable of interest and assignment of participants to treatment conditions - non experimental: does not rely on manipulating variables, makes observation about how variables relate to one another and describe the findings INTRO TO CORRELATIONAL METHOD - provides alink between variables of interest - frequently reported in media - related, either rpositively or negatively - positive = same direction, negative = ppposit directions - allows us to make predictions - useful when experimental is not ethical - helps starts a research topic - no causal events – thirs variables NON EXPERIMENTAL METHODS - ethnography: used to describe a culture in detail by recoding and transcribing events that are witnessed - anthropology - describe new cultures - culture and behaviour - naturalistic observation; observe people int heir natural settings - can occur in field (field studies) or lav - common cases (jane goodall and genie) - advantage: study rare events that would be unethical to study experimental limitarios: do not always know cause of behaviour - not everyone acts in same behaviour - case study: an indepth observation of an individual animal event or treatment, don’t in detail - archival research: using existing records and selction portions of the records to examine - eg police arrests, stats etc - advantages: not having to collect dats, lots of info - disdvantage: record incomplete, no t cause and effecrt - content analysis: counts the number of times a particular piece of content occurs - used to examine media - conducted before an experiment n media researxh - survey research: a research methed where one designs a questionnaire to obtain info regarding behabiours, attitudes or opinions - written is most common - teleophone internet mail person etc - open ended questions: questions in which a response is elicited and there is not a predetmined list of responses - gathe responses you might not have thought og - take time to quantifuy - close ended quesionts: questions where answers must be selected from a predetermined list - limited responses - easier to scroe STEPS - think about purpose - what type of questions - ask one item or factor per question\ - make options clear - unbiased question - avoud negatice wording or complicating ording - avoid use of leading quresions - obey law of parsimony (keep survey simple) SURVEY RESEARCH CAN BE USED EXPERIMENTALLY - easy to administer, obtain many responses, ather info on a variety of issues - costly to administer, false responses - you can coverge the methods chapter 5 – variables, reliability and validity VARIABLES - variable: an event or characteristic that has at least two possible values - independent variable: the variable in a study that is being manipulated (will produce change) - dependent variable: the variable ina study that is observed or measures Subject Variables - subject vrariable: a characteristic or attribute of a participant that can impact a study eg gender, age (influence dependent variable) - cannot manipulate TREATMENT CONDITIONS - treatment conditions: levels or number of groups in the independent variable - experimental group: the group that is exposed to the independent variable in a study - control group: the group that is not exposed to the independent variable (provides a comparison) - placebo control group: the treatment group which is exposed to an iners substance or object that is similar to the independent variable but has no effect - insurance policy RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY Reliability - reliability: the consistency of your measure to produce similar results on different occasions - several types of assessments: - test retest teliabiliity: the most common type of assessment. Your measure is tested on two different occasions for consistency - done a few weeks apart - two scores for each participant - compute a correlation coefficiany for the two scotrd (eg .80 is very reliable) - disadvantage : time consuming - split-half method: a reliability assessment in which a measure is split in hald and the two halves are compared. If the correlation is high, the measure has a high reliability - uses only results frokm first collection of data - eg dividing question in exam - internal consistency: form of split half method: the splitting occurs howevere more than once and an average of the correlations are taken - collecting multiple correlation coefficients - cronbach’s alpha - parallel forms method: a reliability assessment in which a measure is divided in half and given to two groups of people. The reliability is high if each measure given is highly correlated - disadvantage: must generayte a large number of questyitons in order to divide into two parts - interrater or interobserver reliability: a reliability assessment used when a research design calls for observations of an event. Two or more observers compare results from their observations . the higher the observer consensus, the higher the reliability - ensures no bias Validity - vaidity: the accuracy of a measure to evaluate what it is supposed to measure - eg gre test INTERNAL EXTERNAL AND COSNTRUCT VALIDITY - all concerned with the accuracy of the measures used in a research design - Internal validity: it is confidence in saying the observed change in the dependent variable is due to the independent variable and not due to any outside influences (important factor for the independent variable) - Makes you able to make causal stateents and show manipulation has an impact - Measure same variables at another point in time - External validity: the extent to which the pbtained results in a study can be generalized to other settings - Also known as ecological validity - If any changes in the dependent variable can be applied to similar events (eg results in a lab occur in real life setting) - Since research is done in controlled environments usually, it is difficult to know if the causal inference drawn will apply in the real world - Try to design experiments as closer to the real world as possible - Consgtruct validity: the likelihood that the device or scale used to emasure a variable actually is related to the topic or theory of interest - Face validit: device or scale has the superficial look to aassess a variables theoretical construct - Convergent validity: a type of construct validity that states that your measure shouls converge or be similar to other measures of the same variable - Divergent of discriminant validity: a type of construc validity that argues that your measure should be diddimilar to measures of different variables Chapter 6 – Hypothesis Testing FORMULATING A RESEARCH QUESTION - research topic: a broad concept or idea (an idea that is not very well defined) - eg eating diroders and athletes - texting and collegfe stuedents - sexual abuse and teachers - secual orientaion and religion - research question: states a research idea in a clearly defined manner that is testable. A better defined idea, a structures sentence - eg are female high school athletes at greater risk of acquiring an eating disorder than female college athletes? GETTING YOUR RESEARCH IDEAS - most research idead developed on: everyday experiecnces, functional problems, prior research and theory - everyday experience: most basic place where ideas come from. Using experience from life to obtain a research idea , what interest you - functional problems: using real world problems as a source for a research idea (eg fidning medication for depression) - prior research: using what others have done as a starting point to obtain a research idea (take reccomendatiosn from authors, look at peer reviewed journals)this will produce additional research, new ideas - theory: Using an interrelated set of concepts to explain a body of data to obtain your research idea (eg IIT information integration theory has been applied to many topics - focus on things you know and find interesting CONDUCTING SEARCHES - internet - university database - PSYCINFO: largest electronic psychological abstract database by APA - Contains over 27 million records daring back to the 1600s - Contains abstracts/summaries from over 2500 journals, books, chapters and dissertations - Drawback: not always available to full text however contains info you will need to locate the article - PSYCARTICLES®: a full-text electronic database by APA - Small number of records, 135 000 journals. - Does not offer abstact citation with all relavent information but provides direct access to all the research articles in database - Drawback: limited number of journals - The Internet: a worldwide publicly accessible network containg vast amounts of info - Eg google, yahoo etc - The info is not always verifiable or reliable - .edu is reliable, .com .org etc are not reliable STARTING A SEARCH - not too broad or too narrow - large number of records: occurs when a researcher uses terms in a search engine that are to broad (over 1100 hits) - Small number of (or no) records: occurs when a reearcher uses terms in a search engine that are too specific HOW TO DO A SEARCH 1. identify main topics 2. add the word and between two topics 3. add the type of topic (eg violent pornography) 4. use synonyms: when conducting searches tyou may need to think of a synonym for your research topic GENERATING A HYPOTHESIS - hypothesis: a statement about the relationship between variables - need two hypothesis that are mutually exclusice and exhaustive (one can be true and these tow hypothesis are the only possibilities) - eg Hypotehesis 1 caffein DOES have an influence on alertness - Hypotheses 2 caffein DOESN’T have an influence on levels of alertness - Null hypothesis: hypothesis that states there is no difference between scores on the dependent variables (no influence of the independent variable on the dependent variable Eg H 0 μ1 = μ2 - mean of pop 1 is equal to mean of pop 2 (mean of people who did drink caffeine is equal to the mean of people who did not drinkc affeing - research hypothesis or alternative: hypothesis that states there is a difference between scores on the dependent variable - Eg H 1 μ1≠μ2 - There is adiffernece between means, independent variable does influence dependent OPTIONS - nondirectional research hypothesis: a hypothesis that does not make a prediction about the direction that the result will occur in (2 tailed) (does not spexify if it increases or decreases levels of dependent variable - Directional research hypothesis: a hypothesis that predicts a specific direction that the results will occur in (1 tailed) Eg H 01μ1 > μ2 (participants who consume caffeine have greater alertness than those who did not) - sometimes only research hyptoehsis mentiones because people most interested in that - directional hypothesis if basing ur research on others and theres already a direction TESTING THE HYPOTHESIS - testing the null - if results are so extreme they could not likely be due to chance, reject the null and conclude independent variable influences dependent - never used to prove,, say it supports research hypothesis Chapter 7 SELECTING THE LEVELS OF THE INDEPENDENT VARIABLE - levels of the independent variable: the number of conditions for a specific independent variable - eg two groups for caffeine example - group 1 participants with caffeine, group 2 withoug caffeine - adding multiple levels of independent variables can leade to a more accurate result of influence - no exact number, can conduct multiple experiements with different levels MEASURING THE DEPENDENT VARIABLE AND NUMBER OF DEPENDENT VARIABLES - example on promotion of SI program – different type of measures for dependent variable - behacvioural measure: a measure to investiage a persons behaviour (eg nuber of students who attended SI sessions outside of class - attitudinal measure: a measure assessing a persons attitudes on the topic (eg survey to see the attitudes on SI program - cognitive measure: a measure of ones mental ability or knowledge of a topic (eg people knew more info on SI program, such as time, dates etc) - physiological measures: measures that are biological in nature (heart rate, pulse, blood pressure etc) (eg students less stressed – lower heart rates – at the idea of attending SI than others) WAYS TO ASSESS THE MEASURES - percent correct: average of correct responses to overall responses presented as a percentage (eg percent of students in johns class who knes about the sessions compared to students who were correct in other classes) - frequency of responding: a sum of the number of times a person/group responds to a question (eg how many of the participants laughed to the joke) - degree of response: a measure of intensity of a respons (eg how hard person laughed at okes) BACK TO DEPENDENT VARIABKES - no specific number of dependent barianve, but beneficial to have more than one - multiple dependent variables: most studies have more than one dependent variable. Having multiple dependent variables increases the amount of information collected See if you have converging results on a topic - also consider difficulty level of the independent variables - floor effect: when scores fall primarily at the lower rnage of a response option (causes us to not see an influence, caused by difficulty of dependent variables) - ceiling effect: when scores fall primarily at the upper range of a response option (when dependent variables are too easy) - beneficial to use preexisting scales because properties have been established (validty and reliability) OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS - important to know how variables are being operationally define - operational definition: defines how a concept or idea will be measured - makes broad concepts more specific - usually takes time to think about what is being manipulated or measured TYPES OF SCALES - nominal scale: classification of data into one of two or more csategories (yes or no) - select options that name things (religion, sex, school etc - variable being measures is a category or name (female or male)’ - beneficia went wanting to geather info on the percenage of people who belong to, selected a particular option - drawbacks: imited of type of analysis - ordinal scales: classification of data inst an orderdor rank of magnitude - eg class rankings, or sibling ranking 1 2nfd 3 - typically used when more than two items to rate - drawbacks: does not tell you how far apart the options are or distance between, and type of analysis conducted is limited - Interval scales: classification of data on a scale that assumes equal distance between numbers - Eg ratings from 1 – 10 - Large percentage of pscy research uses this, more advances statistical procedures can be used - Has no true zero value , can represent an absence of a variable (like temperature, zero degrees does not represent an absense of temperature - Ratio scale: classification of data on a scale that assumes equal distance and has a true zero value - Eg saying how many times a week u exercise, could be 8 could be 0 Chapter 8 – Selection and Assignment of Participants POPULATION VS SAMPLES - population: the entire group of individuals in which you are interested in studying - what we are interested in - sample: smaller group of individuals that is representative of the larger population - what we research PROBABILITY SAMPLING PROCEDURES - probability sampling procedures: a procedure where individuals from the population have aknown probability or chance of being selected for a study - 4 types: simple, systematic, stratified and cluster - Simple probability sampling: all individuals in a population have an equal probability of being selected (unbiased metod such as putting names in a hat or tandom number table on computer - random number table – give all individuals a number ranging from 1 to toal number of participants, pick a random spot on the table and select respondents with matching numbers from the table, use excel or spss - biased sample: a sample in which not every one in the population has an equal or known chance of being selected – may produce different results - sampling with replacement: individuals are selected one at a time with each individual being replaced before the next is sampled. Here each selection has exactly the same probability of being selected - sampling without replacement: individuals are selected and are not replaced before the next is sampled. Here the probability of being selected changes with each removal - researcher notes if it is acceptable for a person to be selected more than once depending on the nature of the study - Systematic probability sampling: random samplig in which a systematic nd approach is used (eg every kth person, every 2 person, systematic). Gives an unbiased sample in an efficient matter - Stratified probability sampling: a probability sampling technique where a researcher begins by identifying subgroups (or strata) and then randomly samples from each subgroup (eg the day og students attent classes or night classes) – unbiased - Cluster sampling: involves identifying naturally occurring clusters of individuals from the population to select from to be included in the sample – eg those who park on north side, south side etc need to be sure same student foes not participate twixw - NOTE* does not guarentee unbiased sample.- possibility of getting a biased is highly unlikely. Using random sampling increases external validity of the design NONPROBABILITY SAMPLING PROCEDURES - nonprobability sampling procedures: a procedure where not all individuals within the population of interest have an equal lijelihood or known probability of being selected - 3 types: convenience, snowballing, quota - Convenience: a procedure which involves using those participants who are readily available or will volunteer to particpate (eg psyc students for a credit) - Snowballing: a procedure where a sample is acquired by a referral process among similar individuals (select who meet proper criteria, then they give u names of people who also meet criteria) - Quota: a convenience sample is selected that is comprised of subgroups similar in number to the population (eg general psyc to form a sample that matchesuniversity students in terms of ethnic group – Caucasian black etc) so if caucasian students make up 53% of student population, your sample will have 53% Caucasian students. Or 50% women 50% men) - DISADVANTAGE TO NONPROABBILITY: increased likelihood of biased sample (occur due to self selecting eg students who volunteer may be different than those who do not volunteer) RANDOM ASSIGNMENT CONDITIONS - Whether probability or nonprobability sample, use random assignment - Random assignment: a procedure in which a selected participant has an equal probability of being placed into each group of a study (control threats for internal validity) eg flip coin etc DETERMINING SAMPLE SIZE - sample size: the number of individuals needed or that are selected from a study - need to know how much sata need to be collected to see a change in dependentvariable - there is a known relationship between sample seize of a study and the ability of statistical tests to determine an effect (POWER) POWER - power: the probability of rejecting the null hypothesis when it is indeed false - want to know probability of seeing an effect when there is really an effect to be seen - positive correlation between power and sample size, one increases so does the other - as tou increase sample size however other factors increase like time and money, therefore try to minimize sample size - Cohen recommended that enough level to decrease the probability of a type II error or failing to rehect the null hypothesis when it is indeed false - Effect size: the amount of overlap between populations (magnitude of the treatment) - Larger the overlap, between population, the smaller the difference on the dependent variable and vice versa - Determine by looking at previous researxh and be calculated post hoc - Rely on past research - By determining desires effect size and power, we can narrow in on needed sample size CHAPTER 9 CONTROLS AND THREATS TO INTERNAL VALIDTY CONTROL - important to be aware of other variable that could influence research findings - extraneous variable: variable that is not controlled for in the experiment that may have an effect on the dependent variable - when a variable varies systematically with the independent variable, making it difficult to determine the effect of the independent variabe, it is confounding - nuisance variable: a variable that is not controlled for in the experiemtn that influences all particpant in the same manner, causing results to be less clear - BOTH variables are unwanted,
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