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Chapter 2

PSYC 2360 Chapter Notes - Chapter 2: Classical Conditioning, Falsifiability


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 2360
Professor
Naseem Al- Aidroos
Chapter
2

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Review and Discussion Questions Chapter 2
1. One way researchers get ideas for their experiments is
through existing theories. This method is called the deductive
method and is similar to top down processing. Another way
researchers can develop ideas is through observation. This
method is called the inductive method and is similar to
bottom up processing. For example, you are walking past
McDonalds and realize that every time you see those golden
arches you start to think about food. It doesn’t matter what
McDonalds but when you see the arches you develop these
thoughts about your food which then might stimulate the idea
of testing differences in physiological responses when
different visual stimuli are presented. This would be an idea
that was developed inductively. Alternatively, you could be
reading work done by Pavlov, who studied classical
conditioning in dogs and wonder if the same effect could be
achieved in humans. This too might stimulate the idea of
testing differences in physiological responses when different
visual stimuli are presented. This would be the same idea but
developed deductively.
2. N/A
3. Theories are integrated sets of principles that explains and
predicts many but not all observed relationships. Good
theories are: general (can be generalized to the entire
population in interest), parsimonious (it is the simplest
explanation possible for the idea) and falsifiable (can be
disproved). Theories are important in behavioural research
because they can (a) stimulate new ideas for experiments and
(b) form the basic building block for science. The more a
theory is proved, the more evidence that has accumulated
shifts the idea from being a theory to being a law.
4. A theory is falsifiable if it can be disproven. The variables of
interest can be measured and relationship between variables
that are shown in research can be incorrect. A tautological
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