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PSYC 2360 (92)
Chapter 3

Chapter 3 & Appendix A.doc

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University of Guelph
PSYC 2360
Carol Anne Hendry

Chapter 3 and Appendix A Appendix A- Writing Research Reports Writing Style • Clarity o Must be precise and clear o Eliminate jargon and unfamiliar short forms o A basic level of understanding should be assumed o Prepare your paper with an outline o Paragraph’s should contain topic sentences  Avoid one-sentence paragraphs • Acknowledge the Work of Others o You must separate your own words and ideas from other sources o Passages drawn from other sources must be presented in a direct quotation o Indirect quotations must be cited • Active vs. Passive Voice o an active voice is more direct and easier to read o if you refer to yourself in a paper you must use “I” and “we” pronouns • Avoiding Biased Language o must avoid biases regarding gender, sexual orientation, ethical or racial groups, etc. o need to be sensitive to “labels” that may be offensive o when using “he, his, etc.” you must be specifically referring to a male population. The same is true for female pronouns  not “both” genders o ethnic groups names are always capitalized; e.g. “African American, Caucasian, etc.” • Word Processing o Entirely double-spaced o At least 1-inch margins o Times New Roman, 12 pt. font  Or any “serif” font  Figures should use Helvetica or Arial o Italics are used for:  Titles and volume numbers of periodicals  Titles of books  Side margin and paragraph headings  Most statistical terms  Anchors of a scale  A word heading emphasis • APA Style and Student Paper Formats o Student reports may differ from APA style.  Mainly in the presentation of figures and graphs; APA style requires that you place them at the end of a paper Organization of a report o Please see Appendix A, page 288-315. For detailed information on how to properly set up a paper. Chapter 3 – Ethical Research • Summarization of Milgram’s Obedience Experiment o A study on the ability to resist authority o Men were to deliver shocks to a “learner”, unaware that the learner was actually a researcher and that the shocks were not actually transmitted. The shocks were delivered on increasing voltages each time the “learner” got an answer wrong o Men were encouraged by the researchers to continue giving shocks even though the “learner” was in obvious pain o 65% of participants continued to deliver shocks all the way to 450 Volts • The Belmont Report provides ethical guidelines for researchers o Includes: Beneficience, Autonomy, and Justice***** • Beneficence o Assessment of risks and benefits  Need to maximize benefits and minimize risk to participants  Need to conduct a risk-benefit analysis o Potential risks to participants:  Psychological harm  Physical harm  Loss of confidentiality o Potential benefits for participants:  Educational benefit  Acquisition of a new skill  Treatment for a psychological or medical problem  Material or monetary benefits  Personal satisfaction • Psychological Risks o Physical Harm  Often applies to medical procedures  There need to be clear benefits in order to conduct research o Stress  Often refers to psychological stress • Lowering of self-esteem • Fear and anxiety • Re-living traumatic events  Should debrief participants before hand o Loss of Privacy and Confidentiality  Confidentiality is especially important with data regarding sexual behaviour, divorce, etc.  Responses should be kept anonymous  In the cases that the participants information is needed the researchers need to develop ways to separate the information about their identity from the actual data • Avoid any linkages  A Certificate of Confidentiality may be issued (US) to avoid legal issues  Observational research also needs to be kept anonymous • Avoid any unethical breaches. You must provide participants with their personal space Informed Consent • Autonomy- participants are treated as autonomous; they are capable of making deliberate decisions about whether to participate in research • Informed consent- potential participants in a research project should be provided with all information that might influence their decision of whether to participate.  The purpose of the study, risks and benefits of participation, rights to refuse or terminate participation in the study • Informed Consent Form o Printed for the participant to read and sign o Content includes; research purpose, procedures and time involved, risks and benefits, any compensation, confidentiality, assurance of voluntary participation and permission to withdraw, contact information for questions o Must be readable for the general population***  Should not be written in the 1 person  Should be more “conversational”  Must provide translated forms if applicable • Autonomy Issues o There are cases where participants may lack the ability to make informed consent  Minors, psychiatric patients, adults with cognitive impairments o Assent: A parent or guardian of the minor provides written consent along with the minors signature o Coercion: is any procedure that limits an individual’s freedom to consent  E.g. professor requiring students to participate in a study in order to pass the course  Benefits can seem so great that they end up being coercive. • Information Issues: Withholding Information and Deception o It is okay to withhold information that would not affect the participants willingness to be a part of the study  Usually this type of information can be providing in a debriefing session after the study  Must have a good reason not to have any informed consent o Deception: occurs when there is active misrepresentation of information  E.g. milgram’s study as described previously  Informed consent procedures do increase perceptions of control in stress experiments and therefore can affect the conclusions drawn from the research o Biases: informed consent may bias the sample • Is Deception a Major Ethical Problem in Psychological Research? o Many people believe it to be exaggerated o Most research in the 1970’s used deception o Three Primary reasons for the decline in elaborate deception***:  More researchers have become interested in cognitive variables rather than emotions and so use methods that are similar to those used by researchers in memory and cognitive psychology  The general awareness of ethical issues described has led researchers to conduct studies in other ways  Ethics committees at universities and colleges now review proposed research more carefully, so elaborate deception may only be allowed if it’s absolutely necessary The Importance of Debriefing • Debriefing: occurs after the completion of the study, where they have the opportunity to deal with issues of withholding information, deception, and potential harmful effects of participation o The researcher needs to explain why the deception was necessary to the participants o Participants should not leave feeling de-stressed, with a lack of resou
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