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Chapter 11

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University of Guelph
PSYC 2360
Carol Anne Hendry

Chapter 11 - Single Case, Quasi-Experimental, and Developmental Research Learning Objectives (pg200)  Describe single case experimental designs and discuss reasons to use this design  Describe the five types of evaluations involved in program evaluation research: needs assessment, program assessment, process evaluation, outcome evaluation, and efficiency assessment  Describe the one-group post test-only design  Describe the one-group pretest-post test design and the associated threats to internal validity that may occur: history, maturation, testing, instrument decay, and regression toward the mean.  Describe the non-equivalent control group design and non-equivalent control group pretest-post test design, and discuss the advantages of having a control group.  Distinguish between the interrupted time series design and the control series design  Describe cross-sectional, longitudinal, and sequential research designs, including the advantages and disadvantages of each design  Define “cohort effect” Single-Case Experimental Designs  Traditionally know as single-subject; now single-case and single participant designs  Research from these studies often used in applied settings (clinical, educational)  Participant’s behaviour is measured over a baseline period, and then during a treatment period to ensure the manipulated variable is what is actually having the effect. o However, there is no guarantee; there can be other explanations for why the change is occurring.  Reversal designs: A (baseline period)à B (treatment) à A (baseline) o Called an ABA design- again measure behaviour after the treatment has been removed (also called withdrawal designs) o Data should show that behaviour is reversed during the second baseline period if the manipulation is what was causing the changes in behaviour. o Single reversal may not be powerful enough evidence, so ABABAB designs are also used, ensuring the withdrawal does cause a reversal. o Text gives examples of reward systems- rewarded during treatment with tokens for using public transit, removal of tokens causes transit levels to return to baseline levels.  Multiple Baseline Designs: the effectiveness of treatment is demonstrated when a behaviour change sonly after the manipulation is introduced (no reversals) o There are certain situations where removal/reversals would be dangerous and unethical (removing barriers to dangerous or illegal behaviour, for example). o These changes must be observed under multiple circumstances to rule out the possibility that other events were responsible o Across subjects- manipulation is given to each member at a different point in time in the study- doing this, it is easier to rule out changes based on chance or other events. o Across behaviours (again, reward example is given) o Across situations- the same behaviour is measured in different settings.  Replications in single-case designs o Individual data is important; don’t always want to group all of the results together o Complex statistical analysis is not required for single case designs Program Evaluation  Research on programs that are proposed and implemented to achieve some positive effect on a group of individuals (ie- DARE)  Phases of program evaluation research- reference Fig 11.3 on pg 206 o Needs assessment- are there problems in the target population?  Once the need is established, programs can be planned
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