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Chapter 4

Chapter 4: Measures. docx

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University of Guelph
PSYC 2360

Chapter 4: Measures - measurements o assignment of numbers to objects or events according to specific rules Fundamentals of Measurement - conceptual variables o ideas that form the basis of a research hypothesis - measured variables o consist of numbers that represent the conceptual variables - measures o measured variables Operational Definition - operational definition o precise statement of how a conceptual variable is turned into a measured variable Converging Operations - no single operational definition of a given conceptual variable can be considered the best - converging operations o when the same conceptual variable is measured using different measures, can get a fuller and better measure of it Conceptual and Measured Variables - expectation that changes in the conceptual variables will cause changes in the corresponding measured variables - measured variables o used to draw inferences about the conceptual variables - basic assumption involved in testing the research hypothesis o if the research hypothesis is correct, and o if the measured variable are adequate then o a relationship between the two measured variables will be observed - goal of the research o learn about the relationship between the conceptual variables o ability to learn about this relationship is dependent on the operational definition - measures do not really measure the conceptual variables o they cannot be used to draw inferences about the relationship between the conceptual variables Nominal and Quantitative Variables - measured variables o nominal variables and quantitative variables - nominal variable o used to name or identify a particular characteristic o used in behavioural research to indicate the condition that a person has been assigned to in an experimental research design o indicate the fact that people who share a value on the variable are equivalent in some way, whereas those that do not share the value are different from each other o numbers are generally used to indicate the values of a nominal variable o numbers used to represent the categories of a nominal variable are arbitrary - quantitative variable o uses numbers to indicate the extent to which a person possesses a characteristic of interest Measurements - scaling o specifying the relationship between the numbers on a quantitative measured variable and the values of the conceptual variable - interval scale o when equal distances between scores on a measure are known to correspond to equal changes in the conceptual variable - ratio scales o interval scales that also have a true zero point o presence of a zero point on a ratio scale also allows us to multiply and divide scale values - ordinal scale o numbers indicate whether there is more or less of the conceptual variable, but they do not indicate the exact interval between the individuals on the conceptual variable Self-Report Measures - self-report measures o individuals are asked to respond to questions posed by an interview or a questionnaire - behavioural measures o designed to directly measure what people do Free-Format Self-Report Measures - free-format self-report measures o allow respondents to indicate whatever thoughts or feelings they have about the topic, without any constraints imposed on respondents except the effort it takes to write these thoughts or feelings down or speak them into a tape recorder - projective measures o measure of personality in which an instructed image is shown to participants who are asked to feely list what comes to mind as they view the image - associative lists o free-format response formats in the form of associative lists have been used to study such variables as stereotyping - think-aloud protocol o individuals are asked to verbalize into
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