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Chapter 1-5

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PSYC 2360
Naseem Al- Aidroos

IntroductionPurpose of behavioural research is to increase understanding of behaviour and provide methods for improving quality of lives and also provides information that complements other scientific approachesUsed to study important human problems and find solutions Behavioural Research Behavioural Research The goal is to discover how people perceive their world and how they think feel and change overtime how they learn and make decisions and how they interact with other peopleBelieve that personal and social behaviour can be understood through the application of scientific research methodsStatements made by social scientists are empirical based on systematic collection data Everyday Science Versus Empirical Research Knowledge enables us to predict our own behaviour and that of others Relying on Our IntuitionOften when one explanation for event seems to make sense we adopt that explanation as truth even when others are possible Evidence shows eyewitnesses no less confident of identifications when correct as when incorrectCognitive and motivational bias frequently bias our perceptions and lead us to make false conclusions Discovering the Limitations of Using IntuitionNibsettWilsonHad college students read passage describing woman who was applying for counseling jobBeing described as excellent increased ratings of her intelligence and spilling coffee on interviewers desk increased how much they liked herHindsight Bias Tendency to think that we could have predicted something that we probably could not have predicted The Scientific MethodScientific Methods Set of assumptions rules and procedures scientists use to conduct researchDemands procedure used be objective free from personal biasDemands that science be based on what has come before itReplicate results in accumulation of scientific knowledge Values Versus Facts in Scientific Research Not all questions can be answered using scientific approachDistinction between values and factsValues Personal statements such as abortion should not be permitted in this countryFacts Objective statements determined to be accurate through empirical studyFacts and Formation of ValuesScience cannot prove or disprove valuesCome into play in determining what research is appropriate or important to conduct Distinguishing Between Facts and ValuesDistinction between facts and values not always clearcutRace related differences in IQ Black score more poorly on standardized exams than whiteValues and Facts in Research ReportsGoal of science is not to make everything objective but to make clear which parts of research process are objective and which are notResearch Report Is a document that presents scientific findings using a standardized written formatShould have an Introduction and Discussion SubjectiveResults and Discussion Completely objective Basic and Applied ResearchBasic Research Answers fundamental questions about behaviour no particular reasons other than to acquire better knowledgeApplied Research Investigates issues that have real world implications and everyday issuesProgram Evaluation Research Conducted to study effectiveness of methods designed to make positive social changes such as training programs The Importance of Studying Research MethodsFundamental understanding of research methodology will help you read about correctly interpret results of research in any fieldEvaluatingResearch ReportsAbility to distinguish good from bad researchConducting ResearchAdvertising jobs in almost any area of social science require you be informed of behavioural research Thinking Critically About ResearchProgram depends on people who have skills to critically create researchAble to conduct sound research and determine value of research Research Designs Three Approaches to Studying BehaviourResearch Design Specific method researcher used to collect analyze and interpret dataThere are descriptive research designs correlational and experimentalDescriptive Research Assessing the Current State of AffairsDescriptive Research Designed to answer questions about current state of affairs Survey and InterviewsSurveys and interviews found in newspapersSurveys of current concerns of people within a city stateNaturalistic ObservationIs based on observation of everyday event watching children on playgroundQualitative Versus QuantitativeQualitative Observing and describing events as they occurAre in original rich form field notes or audio notesQuantitative Descriptive research that uses more formal measures of behaviour including questionnaires or systematic observation designed to be subjected to statistical analysisGenerally more subjectiveStrengths And Limitations of Descriptive ResearchAdvantage of descriptive research is it attempts to capture complexity of everyday behaviourUsed to provide understanding of what is happeningLimited to providing static pictures cant tell us how concerns developedCorrelational Research Seeking Relationships Among VariablesCorrelational Research Involves measurement of two or more relevant variables and assessment of relationships between among variables
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