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Chapter 2

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University of Guelph
PSYC 2360

Chapter 2: Where to Start Hypotheses and Predictions  Hypothesis: a type of idea or question; it makes a statement about something that may be true  Prediction: concerning the outcome of an experiment  When the results of a study confirm a prediction, the hypothesis is only supported, not proven Sources of Ideas Common Sense  The things we all believe to be true Observation of the World Around Us  Study: people are likely to forget where something is placed when; (1) the location where the object is placed is judged to be highly memorable and (2) the location is considered a very unlikely place for the object.  Putting something in an unusual spot is not always a good idea  Study: One song was given to participants called “Bad Man’s blunder” that has a violent theme and was described as either rap or country music to two different groups. The participants had more negative reaction to the lyrics when it was described as a rap song than when it was presented as country.  Serendipity: sometimes the most interesting discoveries are the result of accident or sheer luck Theories  Theory: consists of a systematic body of ideas about a particular topic or phenomenon  Theories organize and explain a variety of specific facts or descriptions of behaviour, AND generate new knowledge by focusing our thinking so that we notice new aspects of behaviour Past Research  Researchers can use the body of past literature on a topic to continually refine and expand our knowledge Practical Problems Library Research The Nature of Journals  Researchers publish the results of their investigations in journals Psychological Abstracts  Using computer databases to contain abstracts that are related to your p
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