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Overview of Processes, Physiology, Neural Circuits, Techniques from Neuroscience.docx

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University of Guelph
PSYC 2390
Lana Trick

Introduction 9/6/2012 3:26:00 PM Exam: lecture and text based  In both lecture and text – highest probability  Only lecture  Only in text  Part MC, part short answer (25% of grade)  Exam 1 30%  Exam 2 30%  Exam 3 40%  Non cumulative* 1 Overview of Processes of Perception 9/6/2012 3:26:00 PM Sensation and Perception:  How we get information in from the outside world (senses)  Perceptual process: sequence of processes that work together to determine our experience of and reaction to stimuli o Stimulus, electricity (electrical signals), experience, action and knowledge (knowledge we bring to the situation) Perception:  Getting to know objects in world so we know how to react to them  Distal objects events in world (distal stimulation) o Do not directly respond to o Respond to proximal stimulation (pattern of activity of light from back of eye, reflection) Stimulus:  Environmental stimuli (all things in environment we can potentially perceive)  Attended stimuli (center of attention, changes from moment to moment)  When looking at something, image is created on receptors of retina („representation‟ of the moth) Transduction:  Body picks up energy  Must change energy from one form to another (transduction, light  electrical [nerve impulse])  Body understands electrical stimulation (NS) not light directly (light is electromagnetic radiation)  Hearing o Sound (mechanical energy, energy that occurs when molecules bump up against each other)  electrical energy (nerve impulses) o No sound in space because no molecules to bump together o Molecules blackboard  molecules of air  hit eardrum  vibrate 3 bones  cause fluid chamber jiggle  causes hair cells twitch  neurotransmitter release for impulse Transmission:  Electrical signals activate other neurons (see next note) to brain Interpretation:  Neural processing: interactions between neurons, signal transforms into perception of image  Decoding electrical signal and find meaning  Brain adds in info that was not in original stimulation o Brain organizes things and adds things to try and find meaning / make sense o Recognition: ability to place object in a category o Bottom-Up processing: processing that is based on incoming data  Perception usually begins with stimulation of receptors o Top-Down processing: processing based on knowledge  Messy doctor‟s hand writing, look at patterns (bottom up) and then infer what word might be based on context (top down) o E.g. seeing a star even though there are no lines to make a star  Phoneme restoration effect (speech sound) o When listening to speech, expect speech sounds and will hear them even if they aren‟t there  Legislation vs. Legislation  Hear legislation when cough added to strikeout  Vase vs. 2 faces  Action (e.g. seeing a butterfly then walking towards it) o Adaptive? Major goal of visual processing was to help animal control navigation, catch prey, avoid obstacles, detect predators? Necker Cube: multiple interpretations (which is the front side?)  Can‟t see both at same time  Can have trouble making them switch (coffee makes switch faster) Approaches to Study of Perception:  Physiological Approach o How neuron signals in terms of brain activity (electrical responses) o Measuring relationship between stimuli and physiological processes  Stimulus-physiology relationship: measuring how different coloured lights result in electrical activity generated in neurons  Physiology-perception relationship: person‟s brain activity is measured as the person describes the colour of an object they see  Psychophysical Approach o What is the relationship between physics of stimulus and psychological interpretation of stimulus  The brightness of light and how bright we think it is  Gustav Fechner  Stimulus-perception relationship: ask to decide whether two very similar patches of colour are the same or different (difference threshold)  Cognitive Approach o How knowledge, memories and expectations influence how we perceive things  Phoneme restoration effect (would not hear legislation unless we knew the word legislation) History of Physiological Approach: Seat of the Mind  Aristotle stated heart was seat of the mind and the soul  Galen (Greek physician) saw human health, thoughts and emotions as being determined by 4 spirits flowing from ventricles (cavities in brain)  1630s Rene Descartes said pineal gland was seat of the soul The Brain as the Seat of the Mind  1664 Thomas Willis book The Anatomy of the Brain concluded that brain was responsible for mental functioning, there are different functions in different regions, and disorders of brain are disorders of chemistry Signals Traveling in Neurons  In 1800s, were two ideas of structure of NS o Reticular Theory  NS is large network of fused nerve cells o Neuron Theory  NS made of distinct cells  Staining (causing nerve cells to become coloured) led to acceptance of neuron theory  Camillo Golgi  Put thin slice of brain in silver nitrate and individual cells were randomly stained black  Johannes Mueller (1842) proposed doctrine of specific nerve energies o Perceptions depend on nerve energies reaching the brain and experience depends on which nerves are stimulated  E.g. activity of optic nerve results in seeing etc.  Nerves of each sense reach different areas of the brain Recording from Neurons  Edgar Adrian (1928, 1932) o Able to record electrical signals from single sensory neurons o Provides valuable information about what is happening in NS Physiology of Perception 9/6/2012 3:26:00 PM Physiology of Perception: Basic Structure of the Brain:  William James “most mysterious thing in the world” (about brain)  Cerebral Cortex o 2mm thick, covers surface of brain o Creates perception and involved in language, memory, thinking o Modular Organization (specific functions are served by specific areas)  Primary Receiving Areas o First areas in cerebral cortex to receive signals initiated by each sense‟s receptors o Vision – occipital lobe (back) o Hearing – temporal lobe (by ear) o Skin Senses – parietal lobe (top) o Frontal lobe (front)  Receives info from all senses, plays role in perception that involves more than one sense Overview: The neuron  Neurons used to communicate info from one part of body to another  Sensors in senses send info to brain via neurons o Receptors: specialized to respond to environmental stimuli (pressure in air and on skin, light, chemicals in air and in liquid)  Each triggers generation of electrical signals Parts of Neuron:  Cell Body (in mammals, small) o Nucleus that contains genetic information  Axon o Take info from cell body and send to some place else o Can be up to 1m long o Axon structure determines speed at which one neural impulse will travel (width)  Wider the axon, faster the impulse travels o Can travel 35-100 m/s in mammals  Myelin Sheath (vertebrae) o Coating on axon o Fat like substance o Forms bubbles and has gaps (nodes of Ranvier)  Makes axon look like sausage o Impulse jumps from node to node making impulse faster o Squid does not have myelin sheath, wider axons o Infants do not have many myelinated neurons  Why they do not have much control of limbs (e.g.
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