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Chapter 5

Chapter 5 Summary.docx

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University of Guelph
PSYC 2410
Elena Choleris

Chapter 5 Summary Agonist: drug that facilitates effects of a neurotransmitter Antagonist: drug that inhibits effects of a neurotransmitter Competitive Binding: direct agonist or antagonist, binds to same binding site as neurotransmitter, “whoever gets their first”, more drug you have (higher dosage), more likely it will bind over the neurotransmitter Noncompetitive Binding: bind to allosteric site on receptor, “neuromodulators”, can modulate conformation of the transmembrane protein Amino Acid Neurotransmitters: widespread function Glutamate: major excitatory neurotransmitter in brain  Too much can lead to cytotoxicity (over fire and die)  4 receptors: NDMA, AMPA, kainate (all ionotropic) and metabotropic glutamate receptor  Recycling glutamate either through EAAT3 directly back into cell or sucked into nearby astrocyte via EAAT1 or EAAT2, converted to glutamine and then diffuses back into presynaptic neuron (glutamate shuttle) where both processes are repackaged by VGLUT  AMPA and kainate receptors are Na channels, NMDA is as well but has Mg ion blocking it at rest, membrane must be excited (to dislodge blocker) and glutamate must bind in order for channel to open  PCP (angel dust) prevents dislodge (antagonist)  NMDA is made of 4 receptor subunits but 3 different kinds (different combinations produce different affinities to chemicals, NR1, NR2A and NR2B)  NR1 is involved in LTP (long term potentiation: change in communication between neurons, seen in CA1, not in dentate gyrus), spatial learning and memory (took longer to get out of Morris water maze and spend less time in target Q)  NR2B overexpression enhanced LTP, learning and memory (Morris water maze), object memory (spend more time with novel item) and contextual cue memory (heightened levels of freezing) GABA: major inhibitory neurotransmitter  Crucial for maintaining homeostasis (avoiding hyperactivity)  Synthesized from glutamate  3 receptors: GABA (iAnotropic for Cl ), GABA (mBtabotropic), and GABA (ionoCropic, Cl ) -  Made of 5 subunits 1. GABA orthosteric site 2. Benzodiazepines: muscle relaxing, used to treat anxiety (commonly prescribed) 3. Barbiturates: calming, used to be an anesthesia but caused respiratory block 4. Steroids: reason why mood and anxiety can fluctuate (low progesterone – “PMS”) 5. Picrotoxin: inhibits GABA rAceptors, at high dosages causes convulsions 6. Alcohol: does not have its own allosteric site, regulates GABA Aunction Glycine: inhibitory Aspartate: excitatory Monoamine Neurotransmitters: larger, diffuse effects, more present in brain stem Catecholamines: belong to same chain of reactions, synthesized from tyrosine (single amino acid) 1. Dopamine Chapter 5 Summary a. Synthesized in mesencephalon (substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area) b. Projections via nigrostriatal system, mesolimbic system or mesocortical system c. Degeneration of nigrostriatal system is what characterizes Parkinson’s disease i. Can use L-DOPA as treatment but only effective while person still has functional dopaminergic neurons, if not, nasty side effects d. 5 different receptors (D1 like and D2 like), all metabotropic e. Function: movement, attention, learning and reward (monogamous bonds in mice) f. Amphetamines: agonist, used to treat disorders of excessive sleep g. Antischizophrenics: D2 receptor antagonists (over activation of motor system) 2. Norepinephrine a. Synthesized in pons via the locus ceruleus, mainly released indirectly 3. Epinephrine a. Synthesized in medulla of adrenal glands b. Acts on same receptors as norepinephrine (α1, α2, β1, and β2 all metabotropic) c. Involved in flight or fight responses (norepinephrine in CNS, epinephrine in PNS) d. Atomoxetine: selective norepi
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