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Chapter 6

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PSYC 2410
Elena Choleris

Chapter 6 Summary Interspecific Differences: snakes can see infrared Intraspecific Differences: some people are colour blind Perception of Light:  Electromagnetic wave (visual spectrum 400-700nm)  Amplitude – brightness, wavelength – colour Iris: contractile tissue for pupil, regulates how much light is reflected into the eye, coloured part, wide  more light sensitivity  less acuity Sclera: white, hard outer part of eye Lens: role in accommodation, object is far, light rays are essentially parallel therefore lens is thin, object is close, rays need to converge more and lens is thick Blind spot: no photoreceptors – due to fact that retina is inside out  Also get distortion because light has to travel through structures (why we have a fovea – high acuity)  Solution: brain uses information from receptor cells around blind spot to fill in information so we do not see patch in visual field Binocular disparity: two eyes see slightly different images – allows us to see depth Presbyopia: reduced ability to see things close up as we age, due to lens becoming less flexible Duplexity Theory of Vision: Photopic Vision: cone mediated, best in high illumination, low convergence, need bigger signal, high acuity, colour Scotopic Vision: rod mediated, spatial ambiguity, high convergence, best in low illumination but we lose acuity Saccades: eyes are constantly moving and scanning visual scene, allows for temporal integration (seeing different images at different time), if we stabilize the eye  will see no image Visual Transduction: In dark: rhodopsin is inactive, glutamate synthesized, sodium channels open due to cGMP In light: rhodopsin is active, glutamate synthesis is ceased, sodium channels close because cGMP is broken down, causes enzyme cascade Retina Geniculate-Striate Pathway  90% of axons come this way  Nasal side decussates – temporal side does not – allows for left visual field to be processed on right side of brain and vice versa o Retinotopic organization – spatial relationships are preserved in brain when processing visual stimulus  Project to lateral geniculate nucleus of the thalamus o 6 layers – 2 magno (deeper, respond to spatial information and motion) and 4 parvo (outer, respond to characteristics and detail) Chapter 6 Summary Lateral Inhibition: dark looks darker than dark and bright looks brighter than bright, illusion of Mach bands, studies conducted on horseshoe crab and perception of contrast Superior Colliculus Pathway  Remaining 10% of axons come here  7 layers: deep layers (auditory and visual information - multimodal) and superficial layers (visual information)  Orient head and attention to stimulus we hear / see Receptive Fields: Hubel and Wiesel  Circular, monocular, continually active  On/Off firing o Center ON / Surround OFF vs. Center OFF / Surround ON cells o Cells respond best to contrast Other Cortical Neurons  Simple cells: monocular, rectangular receptive fields,
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