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Chapter 3

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PSYC 2410
Elena Choleris

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To End of Chapter 3 Summary Pure Research: curiosity Applied Research: answer specific question / issue Animal Studies: fewer ethical restrictions, more expensive, can use comparative method, simpler brains / behaviour therefore more direct analysis, need to make sure it generalizes to humans Human Studies: directly applied to humans, more ethical restrictions, subjective experiences, cheaper, can follow instructions Experimental Research Methods:  Can show cause and effect, manipulate one variable (independent) and see if it effects the other (dependent) Between Subjects: each group exposed to different conditions Within Subjects: each subject exposed to all conditions  Coolidge Effect (confounding variables, recommence copulation with new individual after being “exhausted” by another, “finds new energy”) – looked to see if effect occurred in females as well or is it just that males get tired before females do Non-Experimental Research Methods:  Case studies, cannot show cause and effect, used when ethics won’t allow us to test what we want directly (e.g. quasi-experimental methods – want to test effects of smoking, participants are people that already smoke) Biopsychology : Physiological Psychology: study of neural mechanisms of behaviour by manipulating the NS, mainly pure research with animals Psychopharmacology: study effects of drugs on NS, mainly lab animals, applied and pure Neuropsychology: study of effects of brain damage, human studies (case or quasi-experimental), pure and applied research Psychophysiology: study relationship between physiological activity and psychological processes, human research, non invasive, pure and applied Cognitive Neuroscience: patterns between brain activity and cognitive tasks, human studies, non invasive Comparative Psychology or Ethology: study of evolution, genetics and adaptiveness of behaviour, interpretation of neurobiology of behaviour whole, functioning organism in their environment, animal studies Jimmie G. (the man who mistook his wife for a hat), cannot form new memories, some STM (conscious – shaking hand prick), diagnosis: Korsakoff’s syndrome (common in alcoholics, thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency, eat less b/c get their calories from alcohol, leads to brain damage (indirectly, but also increases rate of brain damage and neurodegeneration) Jose Delgado: taming of bull, stimulation of caudate nucleus caused bull to swerve, caudate nucleus aggression center? No. stimulation caused bull to run in circles (caudate nucleus is motor control center) Law of Parsimony / Occam’s Razor: must select among competing conclusions, the one that makes the least assumptions Directions : To End of Chapter 3 Summary In brain: up (dorsal), down (ventral), front (anterior), back (posterior) In spinal cord: up (anterior), down (posterior), front (ventral), back (dorsal) Spinal Cord: Cervical – 7 vertebrae Thoracic – 12 Lumber – 5 (spinal cord ends here, further on not solid spinal cord – “horse tail nerves” Sacral – 5 Coccygeal – 3-5 PNS: Somatic: taking in information from our environment, afferent nerves (from environment to CNS), efferent nerves (from CNS to target organ [muscles]) Autonomic: regulation of internal environment, efferent nerves (from CNS to internal organs), afferent (from internal organs to CNS)  Parasympathetic (calming, 2 ndsynapse is close to organ, nerves from cranial nerves and nd sacral) vs. sympathetic (arousal, 2 synapse is far from organ, nerves from thoracic and lumbar regions), each organ receives both innervations except adrenal gland which is only sympathetic Nerves: Cranial Nerves: Oh (olfactory, smell) Oh (optic, vision) Oh (occulomotor, pupil constriction, eyelid movements) To (trochlear, rolling the eye) Touch (trigeminal, face sensations) And (abducens, eye movements) Feel (facial, face muscles and tongue) A (audiovestibular, hearing and balance) Girl’s (glossopharyngeal, tongue) Very (vagus, viscera) Soft (spinal accessory, neck and shoulders) Hands (hypoglossal, tongue) Sensory Nerves: come in through dorsal root, unipolar neurons, cell body in dorsal root, synapse in dorsal horn Motor Nerves: go out through ventral root, multipolar neurons, cell body in ventral horn Protection:  Skull, vertebral canal (foramen – hole for spinal cord), meninges (dura mater, arachnoid layer [subarachnoid space is where blood vessels and CSF are], pia mater), CSF (replaced daily, produced by choroid plexus, drains into dural sinuses and jugular vein in neck), BBB (no gaps, active transport, effectiveness of drug depends on how well it penetrates) Glial Cells: Satellite Cells: support cells of PNS Schwann Cells: myelination of PNS Astrocytes: largest, support cells of CNS (nourishment, signaling, modulate neural activity) Oligodendrocytes: myelination of CNS Microglial: smallest, phagocyte of the CNS Staining : Golgi: neurons turn black, only silhouette, not all cells pick up the stain Nissl: cell bodies turn purple, not specific to neurons, no internal structures Myelination: myelinated axons turn black, hard to visualized To End of Chapter 3 Summary Electron Microscopy: great details, 2D (can see internal structures) or 3D Divisions of the Brain: Start with 3 swellings (forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain) – divide into 5. Myelencephalon: reticular formation, sleep, arousal, circulatory, cardiac and respiratory reflexes Metencephalon: pons (origin of VI, VII and V cranial nerves) and cerebellum (balance and coordination) Mesencephalon: tectum (superior colliculi [multimodal – deep layers – auditory as well as vision], inferior [auditory]) and tegmentum (periaqueductal gray [pain center], red nucleus (motor control), substantia nigra (motor control, Parkinson’s disease) Diencephalon: thalamus (sensory relay center – lateral geniculate nucleus [vision], medial geniculate nucleus [auditory], ventral posterior nucleus [somatosensory]), hypothalamus (regulation of motivated behaviours – 4 F’s – fight flight feeling and fucking) Telencephalon: largest, grey matter – cerebral cortex (precentral gyrus – motor area, postcentral gyrus – somatosensory area, superior temporal gyrus – auditory area), neocortex (6 layers – pyramidal cells [large, multipolar motor neurons, layer 5], stellate cells [small, sensory interneurons, layer 4]), limbic system (emotion center), basal ganglia (voluntary movements, reward [nucleus accumbens], caudate + putamen = striatum) Visualization of the Brain: Conventional X-rays: best if high contrast between structures (how we
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