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PSYC 2410
Elena Choleris

Evolution 9/25/2012 5:38:00 AM Evolution Zeitgeist: general intellectual climate of our culture Two Questions for any Concept:  Should always ask at same time  One cannot rule out the other The “why” questions: evolution The “how” questions: mechanisms  Why do all humans show the same kind of expression to communicate their difference emotions? (evolution)  What is the evolutionary reason? o Important to read into each other‟s emotions  Comparative method: precursors o Behaviour does not leave fossil records o Must look to similar species to see if there are precursors to our facial expressions  E.g. monkey faces How do facial expressions, such as smiling, develop? What parts of the brain are involved in the production and recognition of smiling? (mechanisms)  Imitation (babies)  Face recognition neurons (done with monkeys) o In temporal lobe o Trained to recognize different items and to put them into different categories (by pressing a key) o Are natural at recognizing faces (use facial expressions in their species, could recognize facial expressions in human faces) o Stimulation of temporal lobe improved recognition of faces but not for other things  Proven by fMRIs  Mirror Neurons (the basis for imitation) o Active when animal is recording a certain behaviour and also active when imitating someone else performing behaviour or when someone is imitating them  We‟re better at recognizing facial expressions in upright position o Upside down orientation we become confused Why are flamingos pink? The argument goes…  “…the flamingo's pink legs are thought to be camouflage against the sunset when they are actually due to a diet of shrimps.”  Problem: o Not mutually exclusive o Both could be correct o Both why (camouflage) and how (diet) questions Evolution:  Change across generations  Evidence / ways to see evolution: o Fossil records  Species that no longer exist, records change systematically throughout geological layers  “the missing link” o Similarities yet differences  Structures and functions (arm of humans and wing of bats, same bone parts, in embryo develop from same structure)  Evolution from common ancestors o Artificial selection  Human manipulation (selective breeding)  Can come up with new variety of race (wolfbeagle)  Observed in progress o Peppered Moth Biston betularia o Two forms: black and white  Before industrial revolution: white form  Better camouflaged on trees, look like flowers  After industrial revolution: black form  Due to coal pollution, appearance of trees became darker and was better to camouflage in dark form  White was more obvious and at higher risk of predation o Darwin‟s Finch Geospiza fortis on Galapagos Islands  1997 summer of severe drought  Only big seeds left  Only birds with bigger beaks that could consume big seeds, survived  Average beak size increased  Variability in structure, physiology and behaviour are associated with higher survival rates and reproduction of genes into next generation  Natural selection leads to evolution of species Ethology: study of animal behaviour in the wild Instinctive Behaviors: behaviours that occur in all like members of a species Theories of Evolution 9/25/2012 5:38:00 AM Theories of Evolution Evolution was not only described by Darwin: Greek philosopher Anaxiamander (611-547 B.C.) Greek philosopher Aristotle (384-322 B.C.) Roman philosopher Lucretius (99-55 B.C.) Scientist, Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) Physicist, Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) Philosopher, Rene Descartes (1596-1650)  Universe composed on physical matter that behaves according to laws of nature and human mind which lacks physical substance (Cartesian dualism) o Evidence:  Even most complex psychological demonstrations can be produced via stimulation or damage to part of brain  Non human primates possess abilities that were once assumed to being psychological and purely human Geologist, James Hutton (1726-1797) Geologist, Charles Lyell (1797-1875) Evolution in the 1700s: Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comet de Buffon (1707-1788)  Historie Naturelle  Species change  Environment acts directly on organisms through “organic particles” Erasmus Darwin (1731-1802)  Grandfather of Charles Darwin  Zoonomia (The Laws of Organic Life)  Species change  Position similar to Lamarck‟s  Proposed competition and sexual selection Evolution in the 1800s: Jean Baptiste Pierre Antoine de Monet Chevalier de Lamarck (1744-1829)  1809: Philosophie zoologique  First comprehensive theory of evolution o use and disuse leads to change o movement towards perfection  deliberate attempt to improve ourselves o changes in form through conscious will o environmental effects on organ development (structure) o inheritance of acquired characteristics Had will to get the leaves at the top, necks stretches, offspring already inherit long neck. Evolution in the 1800s: Charles Robert Darwin (1809-1882)  Provided biology with great unifying principle  Most supported theory due to large body of supporting evidence  Robert Fitzroy (1805-1865) o Captain of the Beagle o Took Darwin on scientific expedition o Trip around the world (6 years) o Initially went to make geological observations  Observations: o Fossils in Patagonia o Diversity of life in Galapagos Islands o Giant tortoises in Galapagos Islands o Finches in Galapagos Islands  Noticed great diversity in both of these species all over the world  Captured specimens and brought onto ship which Fitzroy called “cargoes of apparent rubbish”  Took more than 20 years after returning to publish book, On The Origin of Species, Theory of Natural Selection o During this time, it was known such research was being done Alfred Russel Wallace (1823-1913)  Letter to Darwin in 1858  Similar set of ideas On the Tendency of Species to form Varieties; and on the Perpetuation of Varieties and Species by Natural Means of Selection.
 By CHARLES DARWIN and ALFRED WALLACE Journal of the Proceedings of the Linnean Society, Zoology 3: 45-62. 20 Aug 1858  Following year, Darwin published book  Darwin was an object of mockery (ideas were against 1900s Zeitgeist Idea is based on 3 observations and 2 deductions…  Observation 1: organisms have an enormous capacity to overproduce o Make more offspring than number of parents  Observation 2: populations (with few exceptions) remain remarkably stable o Many offspring does not lead to overpopulation as expected o Deduction 1: there is a struggle for survival  Observation 3: individuals differ in their characteristics, and many of these differences are heritable o Deduction 2: those individuals who possess adaptive characteristics will reproduce more successfully than those who don‟t and will pass on these characteristics to their offspring  Process is called Natural Selection  Evolution: the accumulation of the changes in the population due to natural selection  Giraffe neck: individuals had different length necks, when food became more scarce, individuals that had long neck and thus more food available, survived other those who could not reach Neo Darwinism in the 1900s:  Fisher, Haldane, Wright  Darwin‟s theory + heredity and genetics  Fitness: the ability of an organism to survive and contribute its genes to the next generation o Direct fitness (reproduction of organism) o Inclusive fitness (we share genes with others around us [family members], when family members reproduce, they indirectly pass on our own genes therefore hope to help family members reproduce [kin]) Key Points about Evolution 9/25/2012 5:38:00 AM Key Points about Evolution Divergent Evolution: homologous structures (originate from same part of body but then acquire different functions)  Arm and bird wing Convergent Evolution: analogous structures (originate from different body parts end up acquiring similar functions)  Bird and insect wings Similarities across species does not necessarily mean that the species have common evolutionary origins. Evolution does not progress to preordained perfection.  Tinkerer not architect Very slow or with sudden changes.  Mutations Spandreals: evolutionary byproducts (not all products of evolution are adaptive)  Derived from things that had a function o Belly button from umbilical cord  Openings as consequence of having arches (meaning in architecture) Exaptations: not everything has been evolved originally for function in whic
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