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Canada (162,159)
Psychology (3,337)
PSYC 2410 (149)
Dan Meegan (42)
Chapter 2

Chapter 2 Review

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PSYC 2410
Dan Meegan

Chapter 02Studying Behaviour ScientificallyCuriosity skepticism and openmindness are driving forces behind scientific inquiryDiffusion of responsibility each person feels decreased personal responsibility for intervening ex girl being raped when walking back to apartment none of her neighbour call 911even though they knew whats happeningGathering Evidence Steps in the Scientific Process1 Initial Observation Above example Why did no one helpQuestion2 Form HypothesisIF bystanders are present THEN a diffusion of responsibility will decrease each bystanders likelihood of intervening IfThen statement3 Test Hypothesis bycreate emergency in controlled settinggathering evidence manipulate perceived number of bystanders measure helping4 Analyze DataHelping decreases as the perceived number of bystanders increases The hypothesis is supported if data do not support hypothesis revise and retest5 Further Research Additional studies support the hypothesis A Theory of Social Impact is developed based and Theory Buildingon these and other findings6 New Hypothesis The theory is tested directly by deriving a new hypothesis and conducting new researchDerived from TheoryHypothesis tentative explanation or prediction about some phenomenonTheory set of formal statements that explains how and why certain events are related to one anotherHindsight afterthefact explanation is common method of trying to understand behaviour living forwards understanding backwardsHindsight explanation based on past events which can be explained in many different ways but they also provide chances so that further scientific inquiry can be builtScientists want to understand the causes of a given behaviour so that they can predict and then control those conditionsGood theories generate an integrated network of predictionsCharacteristics of good theoriesorganizes information in a meaningful waytestablepredictions made are supported by findings of new researchconforms the law of parsimony simpleralthough scientists use prediction as a test of understanding it doesnt mean that prediction requires understandingVariable any characteristics that can differ ex gender age ethnicity school grades etcOperational definition defines a variable in terms of specific procedures used to produce or measure itSelfreport measures ask people to report on their own knowledge beliefs feelings experiences or behaviourSocial desirability bias tendency of participants to give an answer that gives a good impression rather than one that reflects how they truly feel or behaveArchival measures past records which contain information about some type of behaviour
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