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Psychology (3,337)
PSYC 2410 (149)
Dan Meegan (42)
Chapter 4

Chapter 4 Principles of Behaviour Notes

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PSYC 2410
Dan Meegan

Chapter 4 Psychology NotesGenes EvolutionBehaviourGenetic Influences Our genetics combined with environmental factors determine our behaviour Takes into account both nature and nurtureChromosomesGenes Hippocrates was the first to suggest that semen contains some sort of design for the formation of the offspring Mendel confirmed this year later showing that heredity involves the passing on of specific organic factors not the blending of parents characteristicsGenotype The specific genetic makeup of the individual Present from conceptionnever changePhenotype The observable characteristics produced by the genetic makeup Can be affected by other genesby the environmentChromosome A tightly coiled molecule of DNA that is partly covered by protein The eggsperm carry hereditary materials in the form of chromosomesGenes The DNA portion of the chromosome carries hereditary blueprint in units called genes Every cell in human body except one type has 46 chromosomes Sex cells egg or sperm only have 23 then they combineconceptionDominant RecessivePolygenic EffectsDominant The particular characteristic that a gene controls will be displayedRecessive The characteristic will not show up unless the partner gene inherited from the other parent is also recessivePolygenic Transmission When a number of gene pairs combine their influences to create a single phenotypic trait Magnifies theof possible variations in a trait that can occurMapping the Genetic Code Published in 2001 by the International Human Genome Sequencing Consortium The genetic structure in every one of the 23 chromosome pairs has been mapped Discovered that humans have fewer genes than expected approx sameas a fruit fly approx 31 billionGenetic Engineering The edge of CreationRecombinant DNA Procedures Researchers use enzymes to cut the long threadlike molecules of genetic DNA into pieces combine them with DNA from another organisminsert them into a host organism such as bacteriumInside the host the new DNA combination continues to divideproduce copies of itself This procedure has been used to produce human growth hormoneGene Knockout procedure done with animals mice mostly to alter a specific gene to prevent it from carrying out its normal function Behaviour is then observed Genetic engineering gives humans potential control over the process of heredityevolution Comes with ethicalmoral issues thoughBehaviour Genetics Techniques Children get half of their genetic material from each parent therefore the probability of sharing any particular gene with one of your parents in 50Heritability Coefficient The measure of the extent to which variation in a particular characteristic within a group can be attributed to genetic factors Heritabilityhow much of the variation in a characteristic can be attributed to genetic differences Heritability only applies to differences within groupsAdoption Study a person who was adopted early in life is compared on some characteristic both with the biological parents genes shared and adopted parents no genes shared If adopted person is more similar to biological parents than adoptive parentsgenetic influenceIf adopted person is more similar to adoptive parents than biological parentsenvironmental influence Adoptive children are frequently found to be more similar to biological parents than adoptive parents
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